Vasco Santos

Fernando Pessoa University, Porto, Portugal

Paulo Ramos

Fernando Pessoa University, Porto, Portugal

Nuno Almeida

Marketing and Tourism Department, School of Tourism and Technology of the Sea - Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

ABSTRACT

This paper performs a content analysis on the literature focused on the emotions and involvement in tourism consumer behaviour. The scope of this research is to cover two of the most critical aspects of consumer behaviour. Involvement and emotions that are the two biggest elements that drive tourist consumer behaviour on tourist activity. We aim to define the concepts and understand its relevance in the behaviour of tourists on tourist activity in leisure tourism destinations. The methodological approach used is a content analysis to show definitions, mixed results, frameworks, different theoretical and practical approaches, comparisons and blend of various scales of involvement scales and emotions with the confrontation of authors. These results show that constructs are increasingly prominent on travel behaviour and are increasingly being explored and investigated in leisure sciences. The findings provide theoretical support bringing together a consensus on definitions. The content analysis produces insights on how the concepts and definitions of involvement and emotions were clarified and defined in a more holistic way.

Key Words: Involvement 1, Emotions 2, Tourists’ behaviour 3, Content analysis4

1 INTRODUCTION

A review of involvement and emotions to the level of tourist behaviour has been under progress and conceptualizations, with different approaches from different authors. To Isaac (2008) the consumer behaviour area is the key to explain and understand all marketing activities applied to develop, promote and sell tourism products. The involvement and emotions are crucial concepts of the research in consumer behaviour (Soscia, 2013).

However, there are still some critical gaps in the knowledge about tourists’ emotions and involvement linked to their touristic experience that have to be overcome. The involvement construct has grown and attracted more and more interest by researchers, because of its theoretical and practical value (Alexandris et al. 2012). Although studies have been developed on the role of emotions in consumer behaviour those have only been empirical applied in the tourism field studies to a very limited extend (Hosany & Gilbert, 2009). However, while the majority focuses primarily on the role and impact of emotions in consumer behaviour generally, with some exceptions (e.g., Zins 2002). To our knowledge to this date, no studies have been undertaken in order to understand the synergetic role of involvement and emotions of tourists in their tourist activity on leisure vacations. Although the study by Sparks (2007) address the factors that help to predict tourist behavioural intentions when planning a wine tourism vacation, is limited because focuses on wine tourism and is need to check its assumptions into a broader context. Leisure marketing is emerging as new area of research, it is, therefore, crucial to understand the principles of marketing and also understand the leisure activity (Shank 2009). In its investigation Prayag, Osany & Odeh (2013) their results direct link between tourists' emotional responses and behavioral intentions. According to Martín & Rodríguez del Bosque (2008) cultural values could play a significant role in tourism through important effects on the behaviour of tourists in general. In this context, there are more and more studies that explore the influence of culture on tourism behaviour and preferences (Litvin, Crotts, & Hefner, 2004). The examination of theoretical and practical implications of involvement and emotions definitions in tourism consumer behaviour and the reasons for this examination are threefold:

First, as an emergent approach, the consumer behaviour in tourism represents a growing study domain, to develop and understand the tourists’ performance on the leisure sciences (Gross & Brown, 2008), and the involvement construct has received a great deal for attention in recent years in tourism and leisure domain (Gursoy & Gavcar, 2003). Second, to explore and provide some insights of the connection between involvement and emotions that will help to predict tourist behavioural intentions. Third, contribute to the development of scientific knowledge about a clarification of the concepts of involvement and emotions and their relationship on consumer behaviour in tourism.

Most conceptualizations and operations of emotions and involvement that have appeared in the leisure literature (, i.e. Sparks (2007); Gross & Brown (2008); Kyle, Graefe, Manning & Bacon, (2003); Huang, Chou & Lin (2010); Alexandris et al. (2012) and Lee & Shen (2013)) suggest a holistic approach, as they all adapted work and concepts from in psychology, marketing and consumer behaviour.

The purpose of this investigation is to examine the conceptual definition and the relationship between the two constructs within a vacations leisure context. This is crucial to better understand the definitions of the involvement and emotions in consumer behaviour in tourism to better define the boundaries and overlaps between these two concepts. A content analysis of key conceptualizations of travel behaviour in terms of specific research would be beneficial for the following four objectives:

First, it would promote the clarification and articulation of the main constructs (involvement and emotions) in a deeper semantic perspective. Second, it would integrate different perspectives and methodological approaches (scales and frameworks). Third, it analyses the evolution over time of the leisure involvement dimensions and emotions that have been introduced. Finally, it would complement and advance this knowledge about the impacts on travel behaviour. This paper is divided into two sections. The first section was based on the involvement construct. The second section consists by emotion construct. Nevertheless, it is hoped that by linking some key concepts and approaches in the leisure studies field, this article will encourage further research that will bring our knowledge of tourist behaviour in area of leisure studies. The main contribute of this work is to enrich the body of knowledge on tourist behaviour by examining in depth the multidimensional nature of involvement and emotions concepts, as well as his value as his on tourist activity.

2 Paper format

Methodological approach and conceptual framework

In consumer research, the use of content analysis on the texts must be scientific, objective, systematic, quantitative and generalizable description of communications (…) (Kassarjian, 1977), used in a particular item of the text (Silverman, 1977). This methodology – content analysis – is applied in this research as a tool for consumer research, as shown Sayre (1992). It´s represents a major topic on the role of content analysis in consumer behaviour research that’s based on definitions and detailed studies (Kassarjian, 1977). This paper use the systematic content analysis mentioned in the body of research literature before. The content analysis methodology to consumer research has been introduced by Kassarjian since 1977. According to Kassarjian (1977), this methodology “... integrates the set of studies in terms of themes, we are in a better position to describe current knowledge and practice, evaluate theoretical progress, identify gaps and weak points that remain, and plot a course for future research”. From ever, content analysis has described as “a vital and popular technique in the consumer researcher’s toolkit”, (Mulvey & Stern, 2004). Methodological papers have demonstrated the effective use of this content analysis through the differentiation of various types of scientific studies.

Involvement analysis

Involvement is a construct originated from social psychology, specifically in the 1940s. The history of involvement started very early. Zaichkowsky (1986) pioneered the conceptualization of involvement and its theoretical and empirical explanation and described three main application areas of involvement. In light of this, the first area of involvement research was advertising measuring if advertisement were truly relevant to the receivers. The second area of involvement research is the relationship between consumer and product and the product category perceived by the consumer. The third area is in the broad field of consumer behavior and marketing, specifically its contribution to purchase decisions (Zaichkowsky, 1986). Some of the major researchers use the construct of ‘involvement’ to better understand how and why consumers form particular attachments with product classes (Kapferer and Laurent, 1985a; Slama & Tashchian, 1985; Zaichkowsky, 1985; Richins & Bloch, 1986), such as cars, music or advertising. Involvement is a multifaceted concept because it´s can be used to describe the personal importance, for individuals, of a broad range of objects, such as products/services, brands, activities, advertising, and decisions (e.g., Kim, 2005). Based on the dominant literature involvement is conceptualized in two ways: unidimensional concept (e.g. Zaichkowsky, 1985) and multidimensional construct (Kapferer & Laurent, 1993). Therefore there is a contrast between these authors, due to different conceptualizations that are widely cited in a growing of studies. In their empirical to authors contend that the impact of different facets of involvement in the research results are not always equal (Carneiro & Crompton, 2010). Involvement knowledge has also progressed through the application of theories developed in other disciplines as tourism and leisure marketing, and some research streams have been developed, tested and widely reported in journals. Thus, the area of tourism has contributed much to the development of the concept of involvement. Involvement was developed in consumer behaviour and the involvement has aroused interest by a great number of scholars that analyzed these constructs in their researches, thus they considered this construct valuable (e.g. Sherif & Cantril, 1947; Bloch, 1981 a,b; Bloch & Richins, 1983; Zaichkowsky, 1985; Kapferer & Laurent, 1985 a,b; Mittal 1995; Dholakia, 1997; Gabbott & Hogg, 1999). Bloch & Richins (1983) were they introduced the term "self-involvement" in order to explain engagement which exists only in cases where the consumer is identified with the brand choice or decision. The involvement is a special importance construct due to its potential effect on peoples’ attitudes, because of its interaction with several elements such as the tendency to a certain activity or object, and its behaviour related or towards to some activity or product (Beatty & Smith, 1987; Slama & Tashian, 1985). Douglas (2006), states that involvement can be seen on the interest an individual shows for some product and on the importance given to the purchase decision. The involvement of consumer behaviour is based on the causes or sources, which are described as antecedents and consequences (Zaichkowsky, 1985; Bloch & Richins, 1983), was presented in Table II. As argued by Zaichkowsky (1985) and Bloch & Richins (1983) there are three factors that can influence involvement, i.e. (1) person´s variables, (2) product variables and (3) situational variables. The first factor is related to the characteristics of the person individual, where the needs, importance, motivation, interest and values motivate the consumer to a particular object or product, thus creating involvement. The second factor is associated with the component and the physical characteristics of the object, causing differentiation are associated with further stimulating factors because they increase interest. The third and final factor is situational depending on the benefit and value in terms of purchase and use at a given time. Iwasaki and Havitz (1998) suggested that the antecedents of involvement can be classified in two types of characteristics: individual (values, attitudes and needs, for example) and social (situational factors, social and cultural rules, for example). However, Laurent and Kapferer (1985) postulated on the existence of four antecedents, which are: (1) the perceived importance of the product as well as its personal significance (interest), (2) the associated risk the purchase of the product, which turn the background into two segments: the perceived importance through the negative consequences when you make a wrong choice (importance of the risk) and perceived importance of making a wrong choice (risk probability). (3) The remaining antecedent is the symbolic or sign value that consumers attach to a product, its purchase or consumption (nominal value). (4) The last final antecedent is the hedonic value that consumers attach to the product, your emotional involvement and autonomy to promote pleasure and also affect (pleasure). Andrews, Durvasula and Akhter (1990) grouped the previous antecedents differently, and in three different groups: (1) personal needs (personal goals and consequences values, cultural, the degree to which the subject has significance ego-related, personal value of the object, purpose and importance of personality factors) and (2) situation and decision factors (purchase occasion, object usage, perceived risk of the decision, magnitude of the consequences of the decision, the decision imminent, degree of irrevocability of the decision and the degree of responsibility).

About the antecedents’ context, the above authors have inspired interest from a discussion of the involvement of the theoretical issues and implications for consumer behaviour. In general, Zaichkowsky is the author that presents a more integrated and detailed conceptualization, because she segments the antecedents of involvement, in situations in that the same occur with advertisements, with products or with purchase decisions. Laurent and Kapferer also suggested an integrated set of involvement antecedents, where the antecedent of risk associated the purchase of the product was further explored, for their double significant. However, Iwasaki and Havitz and Andrews, Durvasula and Akhter classify the antecedents of involvement in an approach more simple and general, only two types of antecedents in the same line of thought. As well as the antecedents, the consequences have also a role in this process depending of the involvement. In the perspective of Zaichkowsky (1986), there´s a set of possible consequences of involvement, which derive from involvement with advertisements; involvement with products and involvement with purchasing decisions, as shown in Table II.

For Andrews, Durvasula & Akhter (1990), the consequences are due to the engagement intensity, direction and duration of the effects engagement and divided into three components: the first component refers to (1) Research behaviour: increasing demand and buying behaviour, the increasing complexity of decision, the largest layoff of time evaluating alternatives and greater perception of differences in product attributes. (2) The second component is processing of information: the total growth in activity and targeted response cognition: the largest number of personal calls, the more sophisticated coding strategies and increased memory and understanding. (3) And the third component is the persuasion, that´s based in convincing arguments, in that attitude change is greater. Laurent and Kapferer (1985) also enunciated five behavioral consequences of origin from the involvement: (1) demand maximization of satisfaction on brand choice according to a selection process (buy many brands, waiver of time and analyze various products), (2) the active search for information through alternative sources, (3) likely to be influenced by reference groups, (4) the probability to express your lifestyle and personal characteristics on brand choice and (5) cognitive processing in communication, through the stages of awareness, understanding, attitude and behavior. There are still various perspectives and approaches of the involvement consequences in literature. Conceptual consequences of involvement have differed with different issues and contexts of marketing. Researchers and much research concentrate on the role of multiple dimensions of antecedents and consequences of the involvement on generic consumer of products and services marketing literature. From this perspectives, the involvement construct has earned attention not only in the field of consumer behaviour, but also recently in leisure marketing research, specifically the leisure consumer (Horner, S. & Swarbrooke, J., 2005).

In this paper it is used to summarize and guide a content analysis of principals differences between the conceptualization of the involvement construct by the most contributive authors. In marketing, the involvement concept appears in two different contexts or meanings: involvement with the product and involvement with the purchase of a product (Kapferer & Laurent, 1985a). Therefore the lasting involvement establishes a connection with the situational involvement, but situational involvement does not connect with the lasting involvement (Kapferer & Laurent, 1985a). Thus, in situations where the purchase of a product does not cause desire, interest and pleasure, the consumer only takes the final purchase decision based on price or brand, which only implies the existence of a transient or situational involvement. Involvement is a hypothetical variable, hence it cannot be measured directly (Kapferer & Laurent, 1985b). Rothschild (1984) suggested that involvement has three forms or types: enduring, situational, and response. To make a distinction between enduring and situational involvement types it is used the notion of duration to highlight these differences (Richins & Bloch, 1986). In this paper we present the main involvement concepts used in consumer behaviour, as shown Table I.

According to Table I, there is no a single precise definition of involvement and it is derived because the different applications. Involvement in consumer behaviour is classified by conceptualization, classifications and types. To Laaksonen (1984) there are three groups to definition the involvement cognitive based, individual state, and response based. The main differences of the concept of involvement have to do with the different areas and multiple contexts including involvement such as advertising (Andrews, et al., 1990; Zaichkowsky, 1994; Greenwald and Leavitt, 1984); product class (e.g. Kapferer & Laurent, 1985a; Kapferer & Laurent, 1993; Michaelidou & Dibb, 2006); purchase decision (e.g. Mittal, 1989; Slama & Tashchian, 1985; Huang, Chou & Lin, 2010) and leisure (e.g. Havitz et al., 1994; Gursoy & Gavcar, 2003; Iwasaki & Havitz, 2004; Kyle & Mowen, 2005).

However, it is clear that there is some overlap in the wrapping concept. The construction involved is connected with the nature of the motivational state consumers. When consumers are involved, pay enough attention, realize the importance and behave differently than when they are not involved (Zaichkowsky, 1986). In essence, this analysis posits that various definitions are required to conceptualize and complement the involvement in consumer research.

Table II: Summary of principals differences between the conceptualization of the Involvement construct by the most contributive authors

There are different perpectives to analyse the measurement dimensions and variables of the involvement. Methods for measuring involvement in consumer research were introduced are in Table III.

Levels of consumer involvement were discovered and investigated early in the literature based on product's pleasure value, sign value, risk Importance, probability of purchase error, attitude, perception, commitment, familiarity, brand importance, optimum stimulus level, for example (Hupfer & Gardner, 1971; Traylor, 1981).

There are two central aspects in the leisure involvement research, their dimensions and the behavioural manifestations of the consumer (Hing, Breen & Gordon, 2012). Most studies have focused on the dimensions of leisure involvement, since Laurent and Kapferer (1985) have advanced the application of Consumer Involvement Profile (CIP). Laurent and Kapferer (1985) suggest the involvement should not be measured by the antecedents (product’s pleasure value, sign or symbolic value, risk importance and probability of purchase error) isolated from each other, but with the antecedents grouped to measure consumer involvement. Thus, this set of antecedents gives rise to the CIP. There has been general consensus with regard to the multidimensional nature of leisure involvement (Kyle et al, 2007; Lee & Scott, 2009). However, there is still disagreement over the nature and definition of these dimensions and which ones are more salient to understand the nature of leisure involvement (Hing, Breen & Gordon, 2012). With the introduction of CIP and other new changes emerged based on this, the level of factor structures (Havitz & Dimanche, 1997), in which some dimensions remained, others were excluded and others added. In leisure tourism, the applications of involvement consists of three dimensions – attraction (Funk, Ridinger, & Moorman, 2004), self-expression (Selin & Howard, 1988) and centrality to lifestyle (Havitz, Dimanche, & Bogle, 1994). The principals and most dimensions of leisure involvement were introduced are in Table VI.

The construct of involvement in tourism research applies to a wide variety of consumer behaviours and marketing contexts. On field of leisure and tourism literature, most research chooses to use the multidimensional construct of involvement, with three facets as attraction/pleasure, centrality, and sign (Beaton, Funk, & Alexandris, 2009; Havitz & Dimanche, 1997). Involvement has a central impact on comprehension of the experience of leisure and tourist behaviour (Reid & Crompton, 1993), largely due to its effectiveness as a predictor of consumer behaviour in leisure (Gross & Brown , 2006) . It is for this reason that the engagement has been widely examined in the leisure and tourism area (Gursoy & Gavcar , 2003; Havitz & Dimanche , 1997; McGehee et al., 2003). Most studies of leisure and tourism apply in contexts of activity (Havitz & Dimanche , 1995; Lee , Kim & Scott , 2008) , but also some additional research have been applied in the decision of traveling (e.g., Cai , Breiter & Feng , 2004).

The involvement has been explored extensively within multiples contexts and meanings on marketing and consumer behaviour disciplines. For an overall view, the Table V summarizes a set of studies about involvement in leisure, tourism and marketing context.

Emotions analysis

In the literature of psychology emotions have been extensively investigated by the rich body of researchers in different fields of knowledge. Aristotle was pioneer to emphasize the emotion. In past years, after Descartes, most important studious on the emotions have been Darwin, Ekman, Damásio and Goleman (Consoli, 2010). The role of emotion in tourism has received unprecedented recognition in the field of tourism and marketing. The emotions establish a strong importance in the comprehension of consumer behaviour and even the definition of experiences and also enhance consumer reactions and on tourist (Prayag, Hasany & Odeh, 2013; pp.119).

The effort to define the term “emotion” has a long history in the discipline of psychology and marketing. There are many definitions of emotions as the authors investigate, and each focusing on different manifestations or components of the emotion, but all reflects the theoretical basis of psychology. Several authors’ present definitions and each of these definitions have its origins in several theories (psychology and sociology). In the field of emotion has been great variety of definitions that have been proposed for many authors that diverged in the literature of psychology. Izard (1977), whose emotion scale has been applied in a number of studies to consumer behaviour research, presents three definitions of emotions as shown Table VI, in the cast of the main concepts of emotions. The emotions are a valence affective reaction to perception of situations (Richins, 1997).

Laros and Steenkamp (2005) in our study about emotions in consumer behaviour: a hierarchical approach, the hierarchy of consumer emotions supporting the different emotion structures, i.e., positive and negative effect. The final result can be seen in Table VII.

Emotions have been the target of large and important research investigation in marketing literature applied consumer behaviour literature. In this area, there is a rich group of researchers who normally uses and adapts the theoretical scales of emotions. Thus, there are four scales of emotions that have been widely used in marketing as the primary method of research as follows: Mehrabian and Russell (1974) Pleasure, Arousal and Dominance (PAD); Izard (1977) Differential Emotion Scale (DES); Plutchik (1980) eight primary emotion scale (PTE); and Watson, Clark and Tellegen (1988) Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scales (PANAS). However, Richins (1997) developed the Consumption Emotion Set (CES), therefore considered that the scales that which had been developed presented limitations to assess the range of emotions during the consumption experience. The CES comprises of 16 dimensions and the difference of this scale compared to the previous ones is that consists in the exception of envy, loneliness, peacefulness and contentment, and to Richins (1997) and Bagozzi et al. (1999), its measures achieved satisfactory reliability.

Hosany & Gilbert (2009) argues that these scales have limitations when you want to capture emotions associated consumption, although useful for situations in which they were originally developed. In addition to these, there are Baumgartner, Pieters and Bagozzi (2008) with anticipated and anticipatory emotions, i.e., future oriented emotions. More recently, Hosany and Gilbert (2009) contributed with develop of Destination Emotion Scale (DES). The following emotions scales analysis, there are different methods for measuring emotions on consumer context and this content analysis examines different authors’ perspectives. Different methods and scales have been used by several authors throughout time to measure emotions, for several empirical investigations in consumer research, as shown in Table VII. In summary, the different scales analyzed to measure the emotional states developed by scholars prove that there are wide variations in content. This content analysis of measures of emotions shows several differences between their content depends of study subject.

Different scales on consumer research context have been originally development in various field studies and different forms in marketing and consumer behaviour. As the scales are designed for a behavioral amalgam studies, Table VIII presented their applications in field study.

A rich body of studies has examined the influence of emotions on leisure marketing, hospitality and tourism. The main studies are attached in Table IX, for a straightforward query.

In summary, this overview shows that studies in the global tourism focus on studying behavioural intentions, cognition, satisfaction, purchase decision and decision-making, customer loyalty, emotions as a segmentation variable for leisure and tourism services, its relationship with overall satisfaction, tourists’ emotional experiences and intention to recommend, emotional responses towards tourist destinations, tourists' emotional experiences and satisfaction and emotions and their interactions with personality in a vacation context. Previous research advance that there is a positive correlation between positive emotions, satisfaction and behavioural intentions (Bigné et al. (2005); Yuksel & Yuksel (2007) ; Grappi & Montanari (2011) and Han & Jeong (2013)).

Yet, there is a dichotomy between positive and negative emotions in this context, because when negative emotions are introduced as antecedents of satisfaction and/or behavioral intentions, the contradictory results emerge (Prayag, 2013).

Generally, the tourism potentiates a positive experience with satisfying and pleasurable emotions (Mannell, 1980) and the tourism experience offers unique moments with a high personal value and an emotional charge of the consumers (McIntosh & Siggs, 2005). To Hirschman and Holbrook (1982), field study of emotions in the consumption experience is mostly associated with product categories with high hedonic charge. In this perspective, leisure travel may be included in this type of product, according to their hedonic character. The experiences provided by touristic destinations are emotionally attractive and, the more important are, without a doubt, the emotional “promises” of touristic destinations that increase the tourist’s involvement in the process of decision making and his perception of the unique characteristics of the destination (Goossens, 2000). Emotions are always part of the touristic involvement, in fact, the tourist’s decision usually involves rationality but also emotion, and, although they seem hardly connected, they both participate, as executable factors, in a good decision process (Damásio, 1994). Emotions also influence the choice of a brand, because they identify what’s more important for the consumer (Damásio, 1994). Emotions are the most important aspect of consumer behaviour. Emotional factors are particularly powerful in the process of purchase decision on vacation. Sometimes, tourists make their vacation decisions according to their personal emotions (White & Scandale, 2005). Therefore tourism is no exception; on the contrary, holidays in touristic destinations provide tourists a great deal of experiences (Gnoth, 1997). Following the ideas previously exposed, the experience given by tourism is, by itself, a complex amount of factors (Buhalis, 2000; Swarbrooke, 2002), namely social, emotional, economical and psychological (Bowen, 2001). The role of emotions and the type of emotional response are, due to its essence, delicate and somewhat complex, because emotions can play different roles, meaning, of cause, mediation, effect, consequence and moderation depending of the involvement (Bagozzi, Gopinath & Nyer, 1999). In recent years, emotions and feelings has been of attention by researchers in recent consumer behaviour literature. They concluded that emotions and feelings play an important role in processing information (Sirakaya & Woodside, 2005). In the same way, the tourist’s satisfaction comes from the emotional experiences provided by a destination or event (Lee & Jeong, 2009). Overall, the experience is rich in tourist emotions and tourists are constantly engaged in their own experiences they produce (Hosany & Gilbert, 2009). Goossens (2000) also assigns a very important role for the emotions because they increase the involvement of tourists in decision process and also increases the perception of the uniqueness of the destination, so the emotions are a predictor in the selection and consumer behaviour. As previously mentioned, tourist’s emotions are an extremely important element when it comes to choose to travel; in fact, a leisure trip means an opportunity to be “more” happy and fulfilled. The more negative aspects of our existence are related to our daily life (Krippendorf, 1987). For tourists, leisure vacation are an escape to daily routine, a way to experience feelings of freedom, escape and a world of new and different feelings and experiences that, consequently, produce higher levels of happiness and improve, as reward, their well-being (Gilbert & Abdullah, 2004). Accordingly, emotions and satisfaction influence behavioural intentions (Baker & Crompton, 2000; Bigné et al., 2005; Soscia, 2007; Faullant et al., 2011 and Walsh et al., 2011). Goossens (2000) highlights the emotions and feelings as strong predictors in motivating tourists to plan a trip and postulates that these two factors have a prominent role in the selection and consumer behaviour. In this sense, Peter & Oslon (2009, pp.309) also extol that emotions and feelings in consumers' decision, as well as its impact on changing consumer behaviour. Gnoth (1997) and Chuang (2007) expresses that emotions also affect decisions to purchase tourism and leisure services. In the line of that, the emotions have different effects on behavioural intentions (Zeelenberg & Pieters, 2004; Soscia, 2007).

Content analysis of emotions and involvement

Within the psychology literature, there are two fundamental approaches to studying emotions: dimensional (valence based) and categorical (emotion specificity), (Prayag, Hosany & Odeh, 2013).

The contributions in social psychology literature demonstrate that individuals are closely connected to their societies (Litvin, Crotts, & Hefner, 2004). In fact of this, there is a cultural approach to the concept of emotions. But according to Fridja (2007) the emotions motivate behavior, have a short duration, are short-lived in the field of consciousness and require immediate attention. There is also a behavioral versus cultural approach (Fridja, 2007; Litvin, Crotts, & Hefner, 2004). Cultural norms play a predominant role, and impact on nature and constitution of emotions in how they are expressed and managed (Keltner, 2003; Mesquita, 2001).

Then it is considered that the concept of emotions encompasses the management of multidimensionality. For the content analysis of the concepts of emotions, it is possible to consider that on literature of emotion the major problem has been the growing set of different definitions that have been proposed and some definitions are relatively precise, while others are quite vague, in various contexts and approaches (Kleinginna & Kleinginna, 1981).

Although the involvement is quite comprehensive in psychology and consumer behaviour literature, the current definitions of psychological involvement and leisure involvement developed and evolved from Rothschild’s definition and actually are equally instructive (Funk, Ridinger & Moorman, 2004). The adaptation of the engagement construct has emerged, while the areas of forward applied to study the involvement. Many studies have conceptualized the involvement as a multidimensional construct (Havitz & Dimanche, 1997; Havitz & Howard, 1995; Laurent & Kapferer, 1985; McIntyre, 1989; Wiley, Shaw, & Havitz, 2000). Although the characteristics of multidimensionality of engagement remain the subject of much discussion and attention, initial conceptual framework argued by Laurent and Kapferer remains widely prevalent. Consistent with previous leisure literature, we treat the involvement concept as a multidimensional construct. But agreement is not full, some researchers have approached involvement from a unidimensional perspective (e.g., Kim et al., 1997; Reid & Crompton, 1993), although a vast majority of empirical evidence supports and treats its multidimensionality (Havitz & Dimanche, 1997, 1999; Iwasaki & Havitz, 1998; Wiley et al., 2000).

A critical content analysis of involvement and emotions constructs produces insights for a critical assessment of the literature. Table IX shows the content analysis of involvement and emotions constructs most cited by the contributive scholars and researchers, specifically the principal and frequent categories. This two constructs are extensively used a large number of studies in consumer behaviour, marketing, tourism and hospitality literature.

The dimensions of each of the concepts presented are those that have a higher frequency and the table attests that dimensions and categories of both concepts are related. This content analysis attests that involvement and emotions are linked and connected. In light of the content analysis, there is a consistent and valid relationship between involvement and emotions in consumer behaviour in tourism.

Discussion and implications

The following content analysis on constructs, methods and their relevance’s it´s quite prevalent the study of emotions and involvement with services, products, including tourism, has been extensively explored within marketing and consumer behaviour disciplines. On a superficial level of this content analysis, the results presented show that emotions and involvement demonstrate greater progress and scientific development to the level of marketing and consumer behaviour. The combined use of emotions and involvement has not yet applied by marketing researchers and tourism. The use of the emotions and Involvement constructs only occurred separately in marketing studies, leisure and tourism.

More specifically, although it is acknowledged that consumers have both emotional to their immediate environment (Machleit & Eroglu, 2000) yet no empirical study has investigated and explored the dimensions of emotional responses of tourists in tourist activity. To Otto and Ritchie (1996) the tourist destinations are rich in terms of experiences and attributes and contributes to potentiate an emotional response even greater.

However, to date, the relationship between involvement and emotion on tourist activity involvement has not been explored and this is another limitation on the current study. This kind of knowledge is particularly valuable for better understand the consumer behaviour tourist in tourism. Understanding how tourists involve in leisure tourism destinations can provide a better comprehension of the dynamics of the tourist consumer behaviour and the nature and role of tourism in society.

A number of studies must attempt to understand the influence of emotion in tourism, leisure marketing and hospitality and also the impact of involvement to understand the relationship of these two constructs, through the measurement of emotions and of involvement in tourism.

3 Conclusions

In recent years, much research include on the role of emotions in the generic marketing and consumer behaviour literature, however empirical studies in the field of tourism remain limited and require more scientific developments. The present content analysis concludes that involvement and emotions constructs has been shown to play a crucial role on tourists´ behavioural intentions on leisure, marketing and tourism. To address this knowledge gap, the current content analysis follows a methodical process in exploring and explanation of emotions and involvement constructs of tourists’ emotional experiences in their touristic activity. The study offers important implications for theorizing emotion in the context of tourist destinations. A key theoretical contribution of this study is the development of a content analysis about of these two constructs that maintains the tourist behaviour to provide direction for future research on consumer behavior in tourism. The consumer behaviour in tourism area should focus on relationship between involvement and emotions. It’s clear that this field study needs more advance and scientific knowledge on the subject. This research can mean as an important starting point on tourist behaviour, a number of future scientific studies can be developed to explore the consumer in tourism in general and the involvement and emotions on travel behaviour in tourist activity in particular.

REFERENCES

Alexandris, K., Douka, S. & Balaska, P. (2012). Involvement with active leisure participation: does service quality have a role?. Managing Leisure, 17(1), pp. 54-66.

Andrews, J., Srinivas, D. & Akhter, S.H. (1990). A framework for conceptualizing and measuring the involvement construct in advertising research. Journal of Advertising, 19 (4), pp. 27-40.

Baker, D.A. & Crompton, J.L. (2000).Quality, satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), pp. 785-804.

Bagozzi, R., Gopinath, M. & Nyer, P. U. (1999). The Role of Emotions in Marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27 (2), pp. 184-206.

Barsky, J. & L. Nash (2002). Evoking Emotion: Affective Keys to Hotel Loyalty. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 43(1), pp. 39-46.

Baumgartner, H., Pieters, R. & Bagozzi, R. P. (2008). Future-oriented emotions: Conceptualization and behavioral effects. European Journal of Social Psychology, pp. 38.

Beaton, A. A., Funk, D. C. & Alexandris, K. (2009). Operationalizing a theory of participation in physically active leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 41, pp. 177-203.

Beatty, S.B. & Smith, S.M. (1983). Involvement, search and satisfaction: a path analytic model, In: Darden, W.R., Monroe, K.B., Dillon, W.R. (Eds.), Proceedings of the AMA Winter Educators’ Conference: Research Methods and Causal Modelling in Marketing, American Marketing Association, pp. 44-47.

Beatty, S. E. & M. S. Smith (1987). External Search Effort: An investigation across several product categories, Journal of Consumer Research, 14, pp. 83-95.

Bell, R. & Marshal, D.W. (2003). The construct of food involvement in behavioral research: scale development and validation. Appetite, 40(3), pp. 235-244.

Bigné, J. E. & L. Andreu (2004). Emotions in Segmentation: An Empirical Study. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3), pp. 682-696.

Bigné, J. E., L. Andreu, & J. Gnoth (2005). The Theme Park Experience: An Analysis of Pleasure, Arousal and Satisfaction. Tourism Management, 26(6), pp. 833-844.

Blackwell, R. D., Miniard, P. W. & Engel, F. J. (2001). Consumer behavior, (9th Ed.), London : Harcourt College Publishers.

Bloch, P. H. (1981b). An exploration into the scaling of consumers´ involvement with a product class. Advances in Consumer Research, 8, pp. 61-65.

Bloch, P. H. & Richins, M. L. (1983). A Theoretical Model for Study of Product Importance Perceptions. Journal of Marketing, 47, pp. 69-81.

Bloch, P. H., Black, W. C. & Lichtenstein, D. (1989). Involvement with the equipment component of sport: Links to recreational commitment. Leisure Sciences, 11, pp. 187-200.

Bloch, P. H. (1993). Involvement with adornments as leisure behavior: An exploratory study. Journal of Leisure Research, 25, pp. 245-262.

Bowen, D. (2001). Antecedents of consumer satisfaction and dis-satisfaction (CS/D) on long-haul inclusive tours-a reality check on theoretical considerations. Tourism Management, 22(3), pp. 49-61.

Buhalis, D. (2000). Marketing the competitive destination of the future. Tourism Management, 21(1), pp. 97-116.

Celsi, R. K. & Olson, J. C. (1988). The role of involvement in attention and comprehension processes. Journal of Consumer Research, 15, pp. 210-224.

Carneiro, J. M & Crompton, J-L. (2010). The Influence of Involvement, Familiarity, and Constraints on the Search for Information about Destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 49(4), pp. 451-470.

Cai, L. A., Feng, R. & Breiter, D. (2004). Tourist purchase decision involvement and information preferences. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10, pp. 138-148.

Chuang, S. C. (2007). The Effects of Emotions on the Purchase of Tour Commodities. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 22(1), pp. 1-13.

Cohen, J. B. & C. Areni (1990). Affect and Consumer Behaviour, In: Handbook of Consumer Behaviour, S. T. Robertson and H. H. Kassarjian, eds. Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, pp. 188-240.

Consoli, D. (2010). A New Concept of Marketing: The Emotional Marketing. BRAND. Broad Research in Accounting, Negotiation, and Distribution, 1(1), pp. 1-8.

Crouch, G. I., Perdue, R., Timmermans, H. & Uysal, M. (2004). Building foundations for understanding the consumer psychology of tourism, hospitality and leisure. In G. Crouch, R. Perdue, H. Timmermans, & M. Uysal, Consumer psychology of tourism, hospitality and leisure (Vol. 3). Wallingford: CABI.

Damásio, A. (2003). Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain, Harcourt.

Damásio, A. (1994). Descartes' error: Emotion, reason and the human brain, London: Putman.

de Rojas, C. & C. Camarero (2008). Visitors’ Experience, Mood and Satisfaction in a Heritage Context: Evidence From an Interpretation Center. Tourism Management, 29(3), pp. 525-537.

del Bosque, I. R. & H. San Martin (2008).Tourist Satisfaction: A Cognitive-Affective Model. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(2), pp. 551-573.

Descartes (1649). Passions of the Soul, Hackett English edition, trans. Stephen H. Voss, pp. 24-34.

Dholakia, U. M. (1997). An Investigation of the Relationship Between Perceived Risk and Product Involvement. Advances in Consumer Research, 24, pp. 159-167.

Dimanche, F., Havitz, M.E. & Howard, D.R. (1993). Consumer involvement profiles as a tourism segmentation tool. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 1(4), pp. 33-52.

Douglas, N. (2006). An Examination of how product involvement affects brand loyalty. Master thesis. Auckland: University of Technology.

Faullant, R., Matzler, K. & Mooradian, T.A. (2011). Personality, basic emotions, and satisfaction: Primary emotions in the mountaineering experience. Tourism Management, 32(6), pp. 1423-1430.

Ferns, B. H. &, A. (2012). Enduring travel involvement, destination brand equity, and travelers’ visit intentions: A structural model analysis. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, (1), pp. 27-35

Funk, D. C., Ridinger, L. L. & Moorman, A. M. (2004). Exploring origins of involvement: Understanding the relationship between consumer motives and involvement with professional sport teams. Leisure Sciences, 26(1), pp. 35-61.

Filo, K., Chen, N., King, C. & Funk, D.C. (2013). Sport Tourists' Involvement with a Destination: A Stage-Based Examination. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 37(1), pp. 100-124.

Floyd, M. F. (1997). Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance: Exploring Affective Determinants of Recreation Satisfaction. Leisure Sciences, 19(2), pp. 83-96.

Frijda, N. (2007). The laws of emotion. London: Routledge.

Gabbott, M. & Hogg, G. (1999). Consumer Involvement in Services: A Replication and Extension. Journal of Business Research, 46, pp. 160-165.

Gahwiler, P. & Havitz, M. E. (1998). Toward a relational understanding of leisure social worlds, involvement, psychological commitment, and behavioral loyalty. Leisure Sciences, 20, pp. 1-2.

Gilbert, D. & Abdullah, J. (2004). Holiday taking and the Sense of Well-Being. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(1), pp. 103-121.

Gnoth, J. (1997) Tourism Motivation and Expectation Formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(2), 283-304.

Goossens, C. (2000). Tourism information and pleasure motivation. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(2), pp. 301-321.

Grappi, S. & Montanari, F. (2011). The role of social identification and hedonism in affecting tourist re patronizing behaviors: The case of an Italian festival. Tourism Management, 32(5), pp. 1128-1140.

Gross, M. J. & Brown, G. (2008). An empirical structural model of tourists and places: Progressing involvement and place attachment into tourism. Tourism Management, 29, pp.1141-1151.

Gross, M. J. & Brown, G. (2006).Tourism experiences in a lifestyle destination setting: The roles of involvement and place attachment. Journal of Business Research, 59, pp. 696-700.

Gursoy, D. & Gavcar, E. (2003). International Leisure Tourists’ Involvement Profile. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(4), pp. 906-926.

Han, H. & Jeong, C. (2013). Multi-dimensions of patrons’ emotional experiences in upscale restaurants and their role in loyalty formation: Emotion scale improvement. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32, pp. 59-70.

Havitz, M. E., Dimanche, F. & Bogle, T. (1994). Segmenting the adult fitness market using involvement profiles. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 12, pp. 38-56.

Havitz, M. E. & Howard, D. R. (1995). How enduring is enduring involvement? A seasonal examination of three recreational activities. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 4, pp. 255-276.

Havitz, M. E. & Dimanche, F. (1997). Leisure involvement revisited: Conceptual conundrums and measurement advances. Journal of Leisure Research, 29, pp. 245-278.

Havitz, M. E. & Dimanche, F. (1999). Leisure involvement revisited: Drive properties and paradoxes. Journal of Leisure Research 31(2), pp. 122-149.

Hing, N., Breen, H. & Gordon, A. (2012). A Case Study of Gambling Involvement and Its Consequences. Leisure Sciences, 5, pp. 1-20.

Hirschman, E.C. & Holbrook, M.B. (1982). Hedonic Consumption: Emerging, Concepts, Methods and Propositions. Journal of Marketing, 46, pp. 92-101.

Hosany, S. & Gilbert, D. (2009). Dimensions of Tourists‟ Emotional Experiences towards Hedonic Holiday Destinations. Working Paper Series, School of Management, Royal Holloway University of London, 7, pp.1-34.

Hwang, S.N., Lee, C. & Chen, H.J. (2005). The relationship among tourists’ involvement, place attachment and interpretation satisfaction in Taiwan’s national parks. Tourism Management, 26(2), pp. 143-156.

Huang, C.Y., Chou, C.J. & Lin, P.C. (2010) c .Involvement theory in constructing bloggers’ intention to purchase travel products. Tourism Management 31, pp. 513-526.

Hupfer, N. T. & D. M. Gardner (1971). Differential Involvement with Products and Issues: An Exploratory Study. In Proceedings of the Association for Consumer Research, 2nd Conference, D. M. Gardner, ed. College Park, MD, pp. 262-70.

Isaac, R. (2008). Understanding Consumer Behaviour of Cultural Tourists – Towards a Classification of Dutch Cultural Tourists. PhD Dissertation.

Iwasaki, Y. & Havitz, M. E. (2004). Examining relationships between leisure involvement, psychological commitment, and loyalty to a recreation agency. Journal of Leisure Research, 36, pp. 45-72.

Iwasaki, Y. & Havitz, M. E. (1998). A path analytic model of the relationships between involvement, psychological commitment and loyalty. Journal of Leisure Research, 30(2), pp. 256-280.

Izard, C. D. (1977). Human Emotions. New York: Plenum Press.

Jamrozy, U., S. Backman, & K. Backman (1996). Involvement and Opinion Leadership in Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 23, pp. 908-924.

Jang, S. & Y. Namkung (2009) "Perceived Quality, Emotions, and Behavioral Intentions: Application of an Extended Mehrabian-Russell Model to Restaurants. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), pp. 451-460.

Johnson, B. T. & Eagly, A. H. (1989). Effects of involvement on persuasion: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 106, pp. 290-314.

Kapferer, J. N. & Laurent, G. (1985a). Consumers Involvement Profiles: New Empirical Results, Advances in Consumer Research, 12, pp. 290-295.

Kapferer, J. N. & Laurent, G. (1985b). Consumers Involvement Profiles: A New Practical Approach to Consumer Involvement. Journal of Advertising Research, 25(3), (December 1985/January 1986), pp. 48-56.

Kapferer, J.N. & Laurent, G. (1993). Further evidence on the consumer involvement profile: Five antecedents of involvement. Psychology & Marketing, 10, pp. 347-355.

Kassarjian, H. H. (1977). Content-analysis in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 4 (6), pp. 8-18.

Kassarjian, H. H. & Robertson, T. S. (1991). Consumer Research. Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Mesquita B. (2001). Culture and emotion: different approaches to the question. In: Mayne TJ, Bonanno GA, editors. Emotions: Current Issues and Future Directions. New York: Guilford Press.

Keltner, D. (2003).Expression and the course of life: studies of emotion, personality, and psychopathology from a social-functional perspective. In: Ekman P, Campos JJ, Davidson RJ, de Waal FBM, editors. Emotions inside out: 130 years after Darwin's: the expression of the emotions in man and animals. New York: New York University Press.

Kim, H. S. (2005). Consumer profiles of apparel product involvement and values. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 9, pp. 207-220.

Kim, S. S., Scott, D. & Crompton, J. L. (1997). An exploration of the relationships among social psychological involvement, behavioral involvement, commitment, and future intentions in the context of birdwatching. Journal of Leisure Research, 29, pp. 320-341.

Kleinginna, P.R., Jr. & Kleinginna, A. M (1981). A Categorized List of Emotion Definitions, with Suggestions for a Consensual Definition. Motivation and Emotion, 5(4), pp. 345-379.

Krippendorf, J. (1987). The holiday makers: Understanding the impact of leisure and travel. London: Heinemann.

Kyle, G., Absher, J., Hammitt, W., & Cavin, J. (2006). An examination of the motivation–involvement relationship. Leisure Sciences, 28, pp. 467-485.

Kyle, G., Absher, J., Norman, W., Hammitt, W. & Jodice, L. (2007). A modified involvement scale. Leisure Studies, 26, 399-427.

Kyle, G. & Chick, G. (2002). The social nature of leisure involvement. Journal of Leisure Research, 34(4), pp. 426-448.

Kyle, G., Graefe, A., Manning, R. & Bacon, J. (2003). An examination of the relationship between leisure activity involvement and place attachment among hikers along the Appalachian Trail. Journal of Leisure Research, 35(3), pp. 249–257.

Kyle, G. & Mowen, A. J. (2005). An examination of the leisure involvement: Agency commitment relationship. Journal of Leisure Research, 37, pp. 342-363.

Kwortnik, R. J. & W. T. Ross (2007). The Role of Positive Emotions in Experiential Decisions. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 24, pp. 324-335.

Laaksonen, P. (1994). Consumer Involvement: Concepts and Research, London, UK: Routledge.

Laros, F.J.M. & Steenkamp, J-B.E.M. (2005) Emotions in consumer behavior: a hierarchical approach. Journal of Business Research, 58, pp. 1437-1445.

Laurent, G. & Kapferer, J.N. (1985). Measuring consumer involvement profiles. Journal of Marketing Research, 22(1), pp. 41-53.

Lee, S.J. & Jeong, M. (2009). Tourists' emotional experiences with an event and their consequences. Hospitality & Tourism Management International CHRIE Conference - Refereed Track, Amherst, University of Massachusetts, pp. 1-9.

Lee, S. & Scott, D. (2009). The process of celebrity fan’s constraint negotiation. Journal of Leisure Research, 41, pp. 137-155.

Lee, S., Scott, D. & Kim, H. (2008). Celebrity fan involvement and destination perceptions. Annals of Tourism Research, 35, pp. 809-832.

Lee, T. H. & Shen, Y. L (2013). The influence of leisure involvement and place attachment on destination loyalty: Evidence from recreationists walking their dogs in urban parks. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 33, pp. 76-85.

Litvin, S. W., Crotts, J. C. & Hefner, F. L. (2004). Cross-cultural tourist behaviour: A replication and extension involving Hofstede’s uncertainty

avoidance dimension. International Journal of Tourism Research, 6, pp. 29-37.

Lin, Y., Kerstetter, D., Nawijn, J. & Mitas, O. (2014) .Changes in emotions and their interactions with personality in a vacation context. Tourism Management, 40, pp. 416-424.

Mannell, R. C. (1980). Social Psychological Techniques and Strategies for Studying Leisure Experiences, (Ed.). In S. E. Iso-Ahola Social Psychological Perspectives on Leisure and Recreation, Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.

McIntyre, N. (1989). The personal meaning of participation: Enduring involvement. Journal of Leisure Research, 21, pp. 167-179.

Marshall, D. & Bell, R. (2004). Relating the food involvement scale to demographic variables, food choice and other constructs. Food Quality and Preference, 15, pp. 871-879.

Martín, H. S. & Rodríguez del Bosque, I. A. (2008). Exploring the cognitive - affective nature of destination image and the r