DR GERSHON PAZ-TAL

Based on The Doctorate Theses Research, Paris 8 (Sorbonne) Univ.2013.Department of International studies, France. The researcher: Ramat-Gan,Israel

Abstract

In 2014, there is still a significant failure in the field of tourism information. The F.I.T - Free Individual Tourist - constitutes 40%-70% of the world's tourism market & 90%-95% residents in any country. Google and Microsoft Internet portals and various "Search Engines ",as well as other sophisticated technologies do not provide the "appropriate solution" for the F.I.T.

The researcher has arrived at the conclusion that a change of perception and unification, and of the operative systems is required in order to create one integral combined system. The researcher suggests building a unified system which operates as a “Tourism Solutions Generator” (T.S.G-see Fig 1 p 20),functioning as Tourism Customer Service on a Geographical Basis, by changing the mode of thought from “Search Engine” to “Getting Solutions” as part of the D.M.O.

T.S.G will lead to improvements in Tourism Economy and the establishing of new norms for touring and tourism managerial destinations.

There is a lucrative market for investors and/or governments for N.T.Os as a new growth engine. (Look for short explanation in : http://youtu.be/8zuN4eQKy-c)

Keywords

Anomaly (of tourism information and the use of said information)

Human elements .

"Tourism Logic" (thinking, habits, activities, etc. during travel and at leisure)

" Quality Tourism Information" – Q.T.I = De-Luxe (information)

Terminologyas a short Dictionary

Accessibility (to T.S.G via Smartphone, electronic or chip developed by the researcher)

F.I.T-Free Individual Tourist, which constitutes 40% -70% of the world's tourism market (O.N.S-UK, 2010)(Note 79)

Human Factor (operating human elements/materials).

Here & Now, ad hoc planning (in tourism situations). Done by the F.I.T.

Myth. "An idea or story which many people believe but that does not exist or is false: The idea that money makes you happy is a myth…" Oxford Dictionary 2003 - P 556 . Copyright - Oxford University Press 2001.

Tourism Skills & Tourism Culture. (Travel Tool Books-T.T.B-144 tourism skills of the tourists making the trip, going abroad pointed 5000 elements)

Tourism Experience Content (information). (produced partly by Q.T.I )

Tourist Life Cycle. (1-8 stages of going abroad)

Tourism Branding (first 3 out of 5 strata of information regarding the destination)

T.S.G – A new system called Tourism Solutions Generator (replacing the approach of "Search Engine"). T.S.G for: the "Free Individual Tourists" – F.I.T (families, youth, businessmen, etc.), for Tourism Destinations (National, Regional, Municipality & Sites levels), forall tourism products and services (private businesses or organizations such as attractions, accommodations, art galleries, museums, restaurants, farms, wineries, sports, markets, car rentals, festivals, etc.) fortechnologies and telecommunication companies.(see Fig 1 p 20)

"Pump" Information- The F.I.T "pumps" Q.T.I from T.S.G at any time, in any place, by any technological means.

Introduction to the Gaps in F.I.T Tourism Information:

2012 recorded over one billion international tourist arrivals (stay-overs). In 2020, the W.T.O. expects 1.5 billion tourists (UNWTO, 2010). In addition, there will likely be between 2-3 domestic tourists, cultural tourists and vacationers, with 90%-95% being F.I.T in each country. Most tourists require information while planning trips and/or during travel, including data on sites, attractions, all types of accommodations en route, etc. In 2013, tourists continue to use primitive organizational systems worldwide, when advanced technologies already exist which are not adapted to the F.I.T.'s concerns.

Despite the existence of Internet "Search Engines" and cellular technologies in the field of tourism information, it must be emphasized that said information (Vogt, 1995) still includes a significant failure to provide "appropriate solutions" for F.I.T. These sources of tourism information are partial or out of date, and may not be available in the tourist's native language, or are not available in the right location in real time. Advanced technologies cannot provide useable "Quality Tourism Information"- Q.T.I (Appendix 2) at any given moment in any given location, by any means of communication, at the right price, in real time, on a personal (Note 76,79) basis, based on "Tourism Logic" (W.T.O/UNEP, 1992) (WTO-BC, 2001) (W.T.O, 2000) "…Lack Of Personal Contact…" (Note 25) The architectural structures of advanced technologies are not integrated. (Note 2, 3) (Tazim and Jim-Hyung, 2003) (Christina and Hailim, 2008) & "Automatic Technologies Are Not Suitable For selling complex products" (Like Tourism & Leisure Products) ( Economist, 3/2004).

Research Objective:

The aim of this research is to find the connections between destinations & tourists' difficulties in coping with various problems. The F.I.T must be provided a "Total Solution" in every possible situation, at any time. This requires applicable methods strategically (N.T.O), operationally (D.M.O) and tactically (F.I.T) to improve both branding and tourism economy.

Breaking The Myth of "Smart Technologies":

The axioms are that tourism information is a field that constitutes a positive and critical part of the F.I.T.'s mission: however, no system – hardware or software – exists in the world today (2014) with the ability to provide a comprehensive solution of "Quality Tourism Information" -Q.T.I (Note 10,11,12,13) for the F.I.T in real time. See "Terminology Dictionary". (Note ONS-UK, 2010 & Note 6)

Interaction between Human Factors, Content, and Technological Methodology:

Tourism as a worldwide movement is built on three foundations: the "Human Factor", Content, and Technology. The research process examines interaction between these three foundations, including the collection, analysis (Tourphonet, 1992-2006) (Note 15) and data consolidation from 25 quantitative and qualitative researches and surveys, as well as 5 empiric pilots in which more than 6000 people and more than 500 managerial decision-makers participated. The research diagnoses over 100 formations of "human materials" (Appendix 4) produced by the "Human Factor" (Note 14) in tourism situations.

Over 500 types of motivations (niches) for tourism and leisure have been uncovered, presenting more than 100 different kinds of tourism products and services (Appendix 5) that may be of use to the F.I.T. The research exposes 144 subjects of "Tourism Skills" (Appendix 6) required by any tourist, and defines over 30 variables required for any kind of planning and execution of travel abroad, vacationing, trips, tours or excursions (Note 35) (Note 34A) (Note 18-33).

Furthermore, the research points out over 200 indicators which testify to previous attempts in the field (Note 36, 42-45) to provide the human need for "Qualitative Tourism Information". Observations in 9 countries have been analyzed (Note 20-24, 48, 51), presenting approximately 70 subjects of the "Learning Curve" (Note 46, 47). The research consists of 700 pages covering a span of 22 years (1990-2012), and includes analysis of the links between researches in terms of interfaces, diagnoses and identifications of new phenomenon (Appendix 3), apparent and hidden obstructions, contextual analyses and discussions, and global experiments (Note 42,43,44,45).

During the pilots, over 35,000 contacts/minutes were logged by customers inquiring about over 600 topics, covering over 10,000 destination sites, 4000 touring/hiking routes, and about 3000 types of events. The operating staff ("Informatours") consisted of 26 operators at peak time during the tests in back & front rooms. (Kenneth,Saeven and Roger 1995)(Note 15) (Tourphonet, 1992-2006).

The Problem for the End User (F.I.T):

Defining the problem requires focus on the F.I.T "tourist". The researcher finds that communication and technology companies ignore the "Human Factor" of the F.I.T. (Note 79) who desperately needs assistance.

The "potential tourist" and the "visiting tourist" are interested in relevant information before & during the trip cycle. The problem is providing/receiving the relevant "Quality Tourism Information" (Note 40) (Note 10-13, 52) and/or combinations of various types of content (Appendix 2 & 5)( Note 3,69).

Access to this information is necessary (Note 5) in real-time at multiple points before (Note 68) and during the trip: while bookings and orders are being taken (often earlier), payment, advice, directions being changed, etc. This requires interaction between the "Human Factor", Content and Technology.

  1. The problem of the destination

The country as a tourism destination faces a major problem: it is unable to organize and provide "Quality Tourism Information" (enhanced by the researcher) in real-time despite available portals. No branding information, practical tourism information, or experiential information is provided from one place, in one contact."…The first to reach the tourist with relevant information will win him over and ultimately win this battle..." (Wahab, 1976)

  1. The problem of the Internet myth

In the eyes of the public, any situation can be resolved because "…the Internet provides everything you need…" (Look at Terminology of Myth) , ( Keller, 1998) (Woters, 2010) (Buhalis, 2009) (Busch, 2001) (SDM, 2003)(Appendix 1).

This research shatters the myth of omniscient tourism internet portals & "Search Engines" regarding tourism information for the F.I.T. in real time. (Note 702+702A) The fallibility of several technologies in this field (Internet, Apps, GPS, Smartphone etc) is also explored. Existing technologies (2014) do not provide an adequate solution (Appendix 1 & Note 1, 8,52A) for the F.I.T. (Note 69,79)

Over the years the Internet has been branded and identified as the ultimate tourism information provider, thus creating a myth that is hard to dispel but which must be disproven. The Internet provides solid information about hotels, flights, car rentals and major events and attractions, across millions of websites, but without "Tourism Logic". Moreover, these technologies cannot resolve existing problems due to the uniqueness of the challenges facing the tourist whose interests, motivations, expectations and behaviors cannot be factored into the overwhelming amount of information provided by the architecture of the Internet to date. (Appendix 1) (Anomaly). Nevertheless, this is not a valid reason to reject the contribution of these technologies (internet) to the world tourism industry as a whole.(WTOBC, 2001).

The Big Picture: X, Y, S, T, L, D

The researcher has identified several new phenomena (Appendix 3) such as the "Anomaly of tourism information and the use of said information", as well as the style of the "Tourism Experience". (Note 48) (Paz-Tal, 2005) (Uriely, 2005) (Note 17) "…from destination collectors to experience seekers…" (Buncle, 2006)

In addition, the technological ability of the F.I.T. to receive "Quality Tourism Information" at once, via special kits (Note 40), is also a new field in creating the accessibility to Q.T.I. The research identifies "Tourism Logic" (Paz-Tal, 2005) which brought the researcher to understand that the Internet protocol alone (e.g. "Search Engine"& App & Smartphone etc) (Appendix 1) cannot provide "Quality Tourism Information" for F.I.T, thus requiring the development of new items which are presented by the T.S.G. One of them is an algorithm which developed as a model, a formula, and technology in itself.

This new formula, called T.I.P - Touring Individual Planning (Paz-Tal, 2005) (Paz-Tal thus: et el, 2000) – constitutes a new approach including software, processing & some aids that were not in use anywhere in the world previously. This new model/formula was developed in order to provide fast solutions for the F.I.T. (Note 9) (ONS-UK, 2010) to allow "…closing the loop-from information to booking C.L.C - Contact Life Cycle…" (Note 5) (W.T.O: Team 2003) [326]

"Tourism Human Engineering" is a mechanism which was developed (Economist, 2004) to identify and deal with the "Human Factor" on the emotional, experiential, associative and psychological levels. There are more than 100 "Human Elements" (Appendix 4) such as dilemmas, uncertainty, physical and mental fatigue, etc. This mechanism, assisted by "Pazit" software, enables the provision (Note 68) of a personal solution: S for T specific time, for L location and D distribution by all types of technologies, offering a "solution package" for the F.I.T. in real-time (thanks to the developed Call Contact Content Context Connecting Center = C6) (Note 3), in addition to a related "Quality Tourism Information" (appendix 2 & 5) provider by means of the T.I.P. Algorithm and 11 integrated combinations of tourism data (Note 2) & other means (Jamal and Jim,2003). So at the end of X seconds or Y minutes, a personal solution can be distributed to the F.I.T via all technologies, on-line, on-Call, on-LiveChat, on-SMS, on-Fax,on-View,on-Board, etc.

A Change Of Strategy

The researcher, having checked and analyzed the "tourist problem", approaches the field of branding (Pizam, 2009) problems in a country. Lately (2009), the W.T.O. –World Tourism Organization – has published (Note 4) its consideration of branding a touring destination, in which it analyses the stages of transforming a citizen of any country into a de facto tourist, as well as the mechanism for choosing touring destinations. These considerations are well-integrated (Geng,Chi,Christina and Hailim, 2008) (as proposed by the researcher) in the branding aspects that have been decided at any destination.

The researcher has concluded that a change of perception in the joint strategy, the thinking lines and the operative strategic and tactical systems (Eshet, 2009) must be conducted (in the World Tourism Industry, Note 2) in order to create one combined integrated (Jamal and Jim, 2003) system. This is due to the fact that the concept of tourism information contains 5 strata of different information types, which, over time, create a perception that consolidates into a psychological picture in the eyes of the population as to the touring destination. It is now possible to create access to tourism information via "Ongoing-Tailor-Made" new methodology (Paz-Tal, 2005), creating the advanced technology to distribute the content as information through all cellular possibilities (Note 78) as an integrated tool with the "Human Factor" to get "Quality Tourism Information" at the personal initiative of the F.I.T end-user (emphasizing that the technology alone cannot do so).

The Latest Innovation:

Technologies such as Internet sites, editors (Erenest & Yang, 2006), middlemen, Portals, crowdsourcing, "Like creators", "Balloon (Lot) creators", Tweeters, Facebook "friends" (salaried or not) and "Group Whatsapp" cannot provide QTI in real time (Note 52A,69).(Travel-Gold-Rush by Oxford Uni & Amadeus, 2010)

The researcher has identified & emphasized that for the first time, it is possible to transfer all data solutions from a unified place and time, from 11 combinations of tourism information, from X resources. All 5 strata of information will be instantaneously transferred. This unification makes it possible to "close the loop" (Note 5). This must be operated 7/24/365 (Tourphonet, 1992-2006) (Note 15,52) worldwide, as "closing the loop" for the basket of tourism products (weiermair 1998 & 2001) from inquiry to booking is an iron-clad rule (Note 5) and must be exploited, as well as additional new rules of "Tourism Management" (Kotler, 2003) (Paz-Tal, 1998), only at the appropriate time for the F.I.T & his Tourism Motivation (Buttle,2006).

The Practical View

An interactive single-or multiple-contact personal system (Note 69,76,79) has been developed (Wallace thuse: et al, 2004) based on the T.I.P. model for (Note 9) Tourism Individual Planning. A tourist can communicate from anywhere in his/her home country or while traveling, using any type of cellular or Internet phone, smartphone, e-mail, apps, livechat, etc., receiving immediate answers (Note 67) as "Quality Tourism Information" (Appendix 2 & 5) from specially-trained multilingual, multifunctional, multicommunicational "informatours" 24 hours a day (Note 5, 46) (" …do not forget the "human touch" … "people still want to talk…"…people want "Quality Tourism Information…"…people want fast reactions…") (WTO, 2000). Travelers who do not find their way can be given immediate help, and other "human elements" (Appendix 4) can be added (e.g. emergency medical assistance [Appendix 6] or advice on visiting areas with security or technical problems). By request, information (such as maps or graphs) can be distributed immediately via any channel following an inquiry. This service is comparable to first-class & first-aid local expertise (augmented by second & third aid provided via digital, visual, textual and audial methods available anywhere and anytime). The options offered are based on suppliers of tourism services after crosschecking and are presented in an equal-opportunity random-systematic order when more than one is available – as such, any advice is impartial.

Besides the findings, more than 60 conclusions were crystallized. As for the F.I.T. tourist (Note 77, 79), a "comprehensive solution" (Note 8, 9) is needed for the information problem (details are noted in the research). Indeed, solutions are offered that the traveler/tourist wants and needs, in order to provide an answer to his "Tourism Mission" (Millington, 2006), which enables him to utilize his economic, mental and experiential abilities.(Pollock,1995a,1998b,2001c,2001d)

This kind of systemic, organizational and technological solution combines in its transmission medium an "Emergency Room", a multidisciplinary and multifunctional human being (SDM, 2003 & 2010)(Note 23) (Paz-Tal, 2002)(Note 46) using all available technologies. This solution includes a multidisciplinary database organized via "Tourism Logic" (Appendix 3) which simultaneously answers all the tourist's needs. This modern solution is defined by the researcher as T.S.G – the Tourism Solutions Generator (which will replace the "Search Engine").

The Maine Conclusion - A New Tourism Approach Worldwide

The changing trend of global tourism from Mass to Individual (UNWTO, 2009) (Note 6) and the growing importance of information to Individual Tourism as leverage for Tourism Economy (United Nation NY, 2005) (Wanhill, 1994) have led to the Maine conclusion to develop of T.S.G.: Paz-Tal's "Tourism Solutions Generator" as a "Tele-Communication Info-Reservation Tourist and Commercial Service" based on the T.I.P. model. (Note 9) and C6 as a unique one-stop shop & more. (Wallace,2004).

The Economic Rationale

The T.S.G. offers the D.M.O. (Destination Marketing/Management Organization) a source of revenue based on "Tourism Economy" (Note 7) (Caroline and Fiona, 2008) (Note 64).

Field tests were conducted (Note 15, 35, 40, 46, 52) and included thousands of calls and requests for information, which provided integrated, interactive solutions to complicated customer requirements. Among the users utilizing the system were customers of major organizations such as Diners Club, Visa, Isracard, a daily newspaper, the Nature Protection Association and others.

There are 5 key players in defining the market segments for T.S.G. services: 1.Telecommunication & Technology Companies, 2.Incoming & Domestic tourist & travel markets (family, youth, managers, etc.), 3. Government markets (N.T.O), 4.D.M.O, Municipalities, Regions, L.T.O, 5.Tour services and product providers (Museums, Attractions, Accommodations, etc.) (Appendix 2 & 5) (Note 76)

The T.S.G.'s new approach with modern technologies will provide the tourist with an opportunity to receive "Quality Tourism Information" (Appendix 2 & 5) regarding any destination in the world. With growing global tourism, this can be a lucrative market.

In the future it is intended for Tourphonet™ as a T.S.G. system to be a worldwide service, a telecommunication info-reservation tourism system and service provider based on global distribution of C6 - call/web unique centers in almost every country, some with 1-5 TSG.


T.S.G. Accessibility Via New Technology

The T.S.G. system provides full access (Note 40) (Paz-Tal, 2005) (Tourphonet, 1992-2006) (ITI Ltd, 1992-2006) to all necessary information both for the tourist and the destination country.

The beneficiaries of the contact are the D.M.O, tourist service providers, local P.T.T. and the hosting destination. Since the tourist has limited time at the destination, "…the easier the accessibility to relevant information, the more time will be used on better spending…" (Weiermair, 1998)

Available product information increases the purchase of those products/services. With the availability of modern technology and communication, the T.S.G.'s new accessibility mode creates new norms of touring & emphasizes tourism management for local, regional & national tourism economy.

Summary

  1. Today (2014) the Internet's architectural structure cannot adapt itself to fully suit context-specific individual requirements.(Note 69,79) (Kitaro, 2012) (Note 77, 702) The Internet alone cannot provide meanings (Note 702) relevant to specific individuals or findings (A + B – C) and so on. The Internet (Apps, Smartphone, portals etc…) is a great tool to distribute content = Q.T.I, but it cannot fully provide the nature of the content, the organization of the content, the “contents” of the content, the components of the content, the amount of content components, and the relevant content, on time, on site, in any personal conditions (11 points out of 50 points).
  2. Today (2014), there are no "Supporting Tourism Centers" (as "Customer Service") in any country. T.S.G. (as the Maine conclusion) fulfills this need (Note 79) on a geographical basis. (T.S.G. may become part of the D.M.O. or standalone) "The T.S.G. system is a global system that can be easily tailor-made to numerous destinations and types of tourists…" (Note 66)
  3. The research provides & identifies & develops new phenomena & aids like Anomaly, Tourism Logic, Pumping, Pazit software, Algorithm T.I.P & more, which become the practical to use worldwide.
  4. The research proves that without T.S.G, a small country loses about $3.8 billion (at the period of the research) solely because T.S.G. is not in use.
  5. This T.S.G approach is designed to meet the needs of all participants in the touring process: the F.I.T, the service providers, the telecommunication companies, the D.M.O-municipalities and the regional & national governments. Thus, each of these players would be interested in participating in the T.S.G. service, and the business solution (Note 8) it provides.

As the author has demonstrated above, there are several different economic models to choose from, and the investor (public, private or a combination of both) will need to consider which one is suited best to meet his short & long-term requirements.

T.S.G. as a practical way , can begin to make initial dollar profits after 9-24 months, after which it will gradually spread throughout the world to other countries.

Appendixes (6 out of 12 in the original research )

Appendix 1

Why is the Internet less accommodating to the F.I.T tourist needs than the TSG approach by the T.I.P. Model in real touring situations?

The Internet cannot provide detailed, relevant and specific information to individual F.I.Ts in real-time. The Internet's architectural structure is sectarian, and will inevitably "drown" the tourist with unnecessary, inaccurate and impersonal information. Additionally, the Internet cannot cope with complex or open-ended questions, and cannot organize its information according to Tourism Logic or Quality Tourism Information requirements. Answers provided by the Internet are not integrated to include all possible aspects of the tourist's needs (accommodation, transportation, site information, relevant points of interest, etc.) Because the Internet is "open-source", it does not add any special anecdotes or advice for the tourist in specific locations ("Remember to take a raincoat when visiting the waterfall"). (6 points out of 50 )

Appendix 2

What is “Quality Tourism Information”- Q.T.I ?

Quality Tourism Information is the total amount of information needed by the Free Individual Tourist. This includes all practical information and data, suggestions, recommendations and explanations, guidance, orientation (navigation), saving reservations, alternatives, route planning, personal knowledge, integrated information from different sectors: all provided in one centralized contact suited to the F.I.T. Q.T.I contains all existing information in the field, and can change over time during the trip, adapting to the evolving needs of the customer. (6 points out of 40) ( part of the Anomaly)

Appendix 3

The following terms (and more) have to be understood as new & modern terminology in order to realize the functional and business potential in the new T.S.G. approach (included in the original research):

1."Tourism information is a product in itself". (Buhalis,2008)

2. “Quality Tourism Information” (Enhanced by the researcher)

3. Information is a "key factor" for F.I.T & for the Tourism Economy.(Wahab,1976)

4. “Ongoing-Tailor-Made” new methodology.(Paz-Tal,2005)

5."The Anomaly of tourism information and the use of it ".(Note 68,79)

6. C6 -An unique-inform supermarket. Call, Contact, Content, Context, Conn.., Center. (Pollock,2001)(Paz-Tal ,2013)(Note 68)

7. Seven foundational principles for the tourist and the linkage and relations of each one (creating the right balance of them for the F.I.T.):

  1. Time
  2. Geographical space
  3. Experience
  4. Finance
  5. Patience
  6. Risk
  7. Information

8."Reengineering tourism information systems and their use."( Buhalis,2009)(Note 19)

9."Tourism logic" containing more than 60 elements.(Paz-Tal,2013)(Note 68)

10."Total tourism information solution"

11."Here & Now" tourism situation & planning.

12.“Human factors”, "Human materials", "Tourism Human Engineering".(Note 68)

13.Changes in the tourism "Game Rules".

14.Tourism information multiplication factors.

15.Mobile usability, relevant information - the main factor in tourism.

16.Tourism economy

17.G.G.T.I.-based tourism information, showing data on "Tourism Logic"(Note 68)

18.T.I.P-Tourism Information Planning Model & Algorithm.(Note 68)

Partial: 18 points out of 47 points & more (part of the Anomaly).

Appendix 4

The human elements (conditions) affecting the tourist before, during and after touring situations which the Internet and related technologies are currently incapable of dealing with:

Dilemmas in decision-making, expectations of specific destinations, disorganized attempts to gather information, orientation (navigation), skepticism, uncertainty and anxiety, budget, patience and fatigue, frustration due to overexposure to irrelevant information. 14 factors out of more than 100. (Part of the Anomaly)

Appendix 5

The categories and diversity of tourism information provided by the T.S.G. in one contact: Tourist sites and attractions, restaurants, animal farms, zoos, spice farms, agricultural tours, bicycle renting, trails motorcycles, scooters, pubs, bars, clubs, music coffee shops, kiosks blooming flowers, nature trails, spas, workout centers, sport clubs, rooms to let, concerts, quires, musicals, magicians, clowns, singers, outdoor activity centers, cultural events, festivals, happenings, street performers, B&B, motels, hotels, ranches, camping sites, renting tents, caravan rentals & parks, apartment, suites, gas stations, sailing, beaches, camping supplies, field schools, nature sites, boats, canoes, sailing kayak rentals, barges, canal trips, eco-tourism, bird-watching centers, hiking trips, museums
(35 out of 528 types of family tourism products or services [part of the Anomaly])

Appendix 6

ANANAS is an all-inclusive “Travel Tool box” (T.T.B) The “T.T.B” provides the rules for do’s and do not’s within the travel / tourism culture and required skills. It deals with ALL aspects of travel such as booking, health insurance, medication on the road and onboard, international credit and debit cards, Consular services, Visas, Search and rescue, and points of interest in the tourism field (know how to traveling)

The T.T.B is delivered in 6 parts, 12 touring areas, 33 topics, and over 80 tourism subject skills, altogether 144 chapters encompassing over 1500 A4 pages with more than 5000 tips. (Part of the Anomaly)

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WTO,(1999). "Indicative, Costs to Participate Online Strategies for Information Age Destination Management Systems", WTO Business Council ,Sept. 1999.[015]

WTO Bossiness Council. (2001)," Practical Guidelines For Tourism Destination And Bossiness ,E-Business For Tourism", WTO BUSINESS COUNCIL ,P 19+23, SEP 2001.[050]

WTO,(2000),"Tourism Sector Urged To Get Online Fast", WTO-News From The World Tourism Organization Madrid,27/1/2000.[064] "…people steel want to talk…"

Woters, R. (2010),"Google are not Trust ? Not It ",Investigation Of Google "Search Engine…"Financial Times citation In Israel,Globes,28/2/2010.[101]

Books

Alastair, M. Morrison.(2013), Marketing And Managing Tourism Destination,First Published By Routledge. Simultaneously published in USA, Canada.

Kenneth, P.& Saeven, L. Goldman, and Roger, N.Nagel.(1995), Cooperate To Compete ,Building Agile Business Relationships,Van Nostrand Reinhold ,ITRA Division Of International Thomson Publishing Inc. [526]

Kitaro, Z.& Tenenboim,R . Information Internet, Applications & Searching,Oppus Publishing Ltd,pp 159-205, Israel,2012.[464]

Kotler,P.& Bowen,J. and Makens, J.(2003), Marketing For Hospitality And Touris,Prentice Hall Publisher, Upper Saddle River,NJ07458,Third Edition,893p.[282]

Paz-Tal, G. (1998),Managing Tourism & Leisure Businesses, Five Mode Of Tourism Experiences,( 600 p') Lahman Publishing House, Israel , p 131,227-226.[511]

Paz-Tal, G. (2005), It All Start At Home-leisure Management From Theory to

Practice,Oppus & Gefen Publishers,370 p',Ramat - Gan, Israel.[058]

Pizam, A,& Mansfeld ,Y.(2007), Consumer Behavior In Travel And Tourism,The Haworth Hospitality Press, New York, London, Oxford.

Reich, A. z. (1999), Positioning of Destinations,Advances,Vol 4 Tourism

Application Series, Northern Arizona University, Sagmore Publishing.[063]

Torkildsen, G. (1993), Leisure & Recreation Management,E & FN,P 25-26, Third Edition Spon, London.

Wahab, S. (1976),Tourism Marketing, A Destination-Oriented Programed

For The Marketing of International Tourism. Published By Tourism International Press, UK.[067]

W.T.O. No Name, (2009), Hand Book On Tourism Destination Branding,With An Introduction By Simon Anholt, Published By World TourismOrganization – UN And By: European Travel Commission-ETC, First Printing .[288]

Zoreda , J., Luis,(1999),Tourism Destination Online Strategies for the Information Age. Published by CEO - WTO Business Council Marketing ,the World Tourism Organization ISBN; 92 844 0328 6 [004].

Notes - Selected Notes 79 out of 710. The Number [XXX[ show us the Comment (Note) Number in the original research.

Part A

1. "Tourism Highlights",(2009) Edition. UNWTO.[522] ,No Name,Travel-Gold-Rush-2020-Report,Conference:Pioneering Growth and Probability Trends in the Travel Sector, Developed By Oxford Economics (University) in Partnership with Amadeus Technology Group ,in UK,10/2010.[522A].

2. "…The "Tourism law ", in the tourism industry… lead to integration…" "….it means, lead to…create the integration with…these 14 kinds of items: integration…combination…cooperation…sharing…inclusion… participation…collaboration…joining…connection…composition… dialogue…partnership…coordination….or synchronization ….this is the approach of TSG !! Tazim Jamal And Jin-Hyung Lee," Integrating Micro And Macro Approach To Tourism Motivations: Toward An Interdisciplinary Theory", in Tourism Analysis, Vol 8 pp 47-59:2003.[238]

3. "…the importance of "integrated approach"…as opposed to the sectorial reality in the destination management…2…this is a must for destination management…3 …the decision makers are not understanding this point…4…this element is an "iron rule" of tourism management…. Christina Geng-Qing Chi, Hailim Qu,(2008)" Examining The Structural Relationships Of Destination Image, Tourist satisfaction And Destination Loyalty: An Integrated Approach ",In Tourism Management, PP 624-636, August 2008.[266]

4. W.T.O & European Travel Commission-ETC, (2009)," Hand Book On Tourism Destination ",With An Introduction By Simon Anholt, B. Published By WTO & ETC: 2009.[288] [680]

5. "closing the loop-from information to booking . C.L.C - Contact life Cycle" [326] . WTO: Team 2003[326]

6. "As one of the top establishment types catering to free independent travelers, youth hostels need to understand the effects of the increase of F.I.Ts on their businesses. It is also necessary for trade players to distinguish the changing needs of F.I.Ts and the segment’s future growth potential. Hence, we put forward a four-section study of FITS coming from the Asia Pacific, today’s emerging tourism-driver." Around 80 per cent of British travelers to New Zealand are either free independent travelers (F.I.T" [Source: "Royal Intel - Tourism Intelligence Consultants" 25/4/12. [454] see F.I.T to UK.NOS-UK collecting & calculations by Dr R.R Bar-on

7. "This paper addresses the issues of personal taxation and social insurance contributions and the their relation to income multipliers. It demonstrates that the state at which they are deducted as leakages can have very different effects on the resulting multiplier values. Some researchers use national income accounting concepts, in which case the income multipliers are estimated gross of direct taxes and social insurance contributions, while others deduct these items at sources, as they are normally collected for the government by firms on behalf of their employees. The latter method results in the estimation of tourist disposable income multipliers. On balance it is argued that the first methods is to be preferred since the second procedure is, in essence,"… attributing taxation to the corporate sector, which does not accord with the practices of national income accounting…"[678] Wanhill, S. 1994. "The Measurement of Tourism Income Multipliers." Tourism Management 15(4):281-283.[678]

8. The Point 1. IBM as the leader of the revolution of information …, IBM transfers … by producing strategy to a providing solutions and software…] providing solutions strategy is the main strategy of T.S.G -Tourism Solutions Generator of author's research….,IT-The Computing Professional Magazine Of Israel,12/2/2008.[249]

9. Birgul Egeli, Meral Korzay, Meltem Ozturan – editors .The authors: Gershon Paz-Tal, Raphael Raymond Bar-On, Yoni Shapira,(2000)," The Tourphonet (as T.S.G-pilot stage) system: An Innovative Solution For Personal- Assisted Tele-Communication Info-Reservation Tourist And Commercial Service" , in the Technology Impact on Cultural TourismConference Proceedings, June 27-29 2000 Istanbul-Turkey 2000 Conference, supported by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Part B

10. Dimitrios Buhallis, "About How More Of the Multitude of Very Small Independent Businesses Should Be Into the Electronic Age",In Seminar in University Of Surrey,Feb. 2001.[046]

11. Dimitrios Buhalis,"Strategic Use of Information Technologies, In the Tourism Industry" ,Tourism Management Vol 19 no 5 pp. 409-421, 1998, published by Elsevier Science Ltd UK.[011]

12. Dimitrios Buhalis and Rob Low," Progress In Information Technology And Tourism Management ",in Tourism Management, PP 611-612,Aug 2008.[265]

13. Demitrios Buhalis,"Twenty Years On And Ten Years After The Internet Stat Of

E-Tourism Research ".From The International Center For

Tourism & Hospitality Research Bournemouth University,

In Journal Of Tourism Society Quarter 3 Issue 141 Autumn 2009 . jourrnal@tourismsociety.org [273]

14. Erenset & Yang," Research Report – The Potential Tourism Markets of Israel", pp 131,133,143,141,Published by Tourism Ministry , Israel, Nov 2006. [076]

15.Tourphonet Prospect's (pilots1992-2006)",No Name, For Isracard Preliminary Pilot Cooperate With Arkia Airline ,Hertz Car Rental, Hayatt Hotels International etc., Published by ITI 1997/8.[320][belong also to [305]

16. "Travel Youth Travel Market in Europe, Travel & Tourism Analyst",Minitel IntPublisher Group ,10/2004. [453]

17. Uriely Natan,"The Tourist Experience, Conceptual Development",

Annals of Tourism Research,Vol.32,No. 1,PP.199 -216,

Elsevered.Pergamon ,2005.[080]

Part C

18. Busch Markus - Managing Director of SDM (Swiss Destination Management), "Depth interview"(2001), by Naomi Panush & Paz-Tal Gershon as the representatives of the Israel Tourism Assoc - ITA, in SDM office call center, Zurich, Swiss ,11 June 2001.[018][look also 151][016]

19. Dimitrios Bauhalis,(1996),"Information Technology and the Reengineering Of Tourism Enter,1996.[035]

20. Embacher Hance,(2001) -the Director Manager of Farmholiday Austria ,"interview" ,Zalsburg,11/6/2001.[620]

21. Embacher Hance,(2010),the Director Manager of Farmholiday Austria ,"interview" ,Berlin-ITB,9/3/2010.[618]

22. Maier Helga (2001), Manager of Tiscover Software Company for Travel Information Systems, "Depth Interview and presentation of some new software" by Naomi Panush & Gershon Paz-Tal, Representatives of the Israel Tourism Assoc, Austria,12 June 2001.[021]

23. SDM, (2003),Switzerland Destination Management Ltd, "Profile vision programs Swiss Web sites", www.sdm.com,Tourism Organization and Firms in the web,12/5/2003 [016][018,151]

24. Waiermair Klaus ,(2001),Professor for very small Tourism Businesses, University of Insburg Austria, "Depth Interview" ,by Naomi Panush& Paz-Tal Gershon representatives of the Israel Tourism Assoc. Austria,12 June 2001.[019]

25. Wallace Manolis And Athers,(2001)," Intelligent One-Stop-Shop Travel Using An Adaptive Neutral Recommendation Network and Clustering Of History", "…Lack Of Personal Contact…" , Information Technology & Tourism Vol 6 p.p.182-193,2004.[353]


Part D

26. Paris-Tourism Information Stations In 9 Sites In France "Visits & Interview with The Manager Of the France TIC Tourism Information Centers" ,Shance-Elize Avenu Paris- the National Station, organized by Mr Rafi Matsliach Deputy Manager, Paris, 1-9/6/01.[083]

27. Paris Center -Near Place-De- La- Bastee,(2010),"Searching 34 Café With WiFi Abilities", In Paris,No one have This Ability 4/3/10.[167]

28. Rome, Tourism Information Station,(2010),"visit Pictures"by Max & Tsipi,26/5/10[554]

29. San Denis Tourism Information Station,(2010), "Visit & interview ",San Denis- North Of Paris Municipality ,France, ,2/3/2010.[155]

30.St' Gallen ,(2010), rent of "cellular for tourism information for St' Gallen",Swisserland,1-17/3/10. [485]

31. Sub Station, Shared With private Chocolate Store, (2010),as tourism information point ,"Visit & interview" ,Swiss,9/3/2010 [165]

33. Tourism Information Station, ," Visit", Budapest Airport & Municipality ,1/3/2010.[158]. Tourism Information Stations In 5 Sites In London City "Visits& Interviews" with The Managers Of the British TIC -Tourism Information Centers,1-9/1/00.[039a]

Part E

34.De Kastro Aaron -deputy Google Israel,(2009)," Presentation T.S.G New Concept & Document ",Tel Aviv,9/12/09.[470]

34A. Agam Ailon, (2004), manager of content Pelephon cellular Ltd," Summary of Tourphonet Show & Demonstration & Presentation as T.S.G ",Pelephone Ltd ,Israel,30/6/2004.[614]

35. Baron Refael Raimond ,(2003)," Professional Evaluation For Tourism Information System For Individuals Traveler Called Tourphonet (As T.S.G)", In Past The Head of Research Devision Of Tourism Ministry 26/12/2003.[177]

36.Beyond Guiding,,(2004),"Tourism Information Cellular ",Google web Site,20/6/04 [544]

37.Budapest Information City Map,(2010), ",By: BTH –Budapesti Tursztikai Non Profit Kft. Tourism Office Of Budapest.2010.[187]

38. Christina Licata Maria,(2001), "E-Tourism: Challenges Solutions Mobile Technologies Also Coming...Change in the Way That Tourism Is Marketed and Sold"; Seminar in University Of Surrey, Feb. 2001[017]

39. Clark Calin G,(1999)," Changes In Leisure Time, Impact On Tourism ", A Publication Of The World Tourism Organization-Business Council [WTOBC] 1999..[298].

39A.Elzas Lorian one Of Regionals In France ,(2010),"Regional Prospect By Elzas Lorain Tourism Association ",Distribute point at Shanz-Elize Avinu Paris,3/2010.[191]

40. ITI Ltd,"Tourphonet (As T.S.G),(1992-2006),4 cards In 4 Generations" ,For "Quality Tourism Information" Pilots on the basis of TIP Algorithm, Original Card Documents, Pilots 1992-2006.[524]

41. No Name," Marketing Tourism Destination Online,Strategies For The Information Age "(2001),,World Tourism Organization-Business Council [ WTOBC ] Indicative Cost Participate Online, Destination Management Systems.9/2001.[319]

42. "Mobile Tourist Guide "(2003),The Program Project Description. No Of Project-IST-2001-36004, 13/12/2003.W.W.W.Motoguide.org .Time : , 1/5/2002 start, 31/12/03 – end [591]

43. "Motonow",(2004) ,www.Motonow.com.9/1/04[592] [590,591]

44. MotoGuide,(2003),"Cellular For Tourism & Leisure Content" ,A Project With the Cooperation By The OECD,israel,Maariv,May 2003.[045]

45. "Motoguide"(2003).org. com ,The developers :Motorola Israel [IL],31/12/03] [337]Participated: Motorola,[A Tourism Cellular Mobilephone led by Motorola Int Financed by The Europien Union.31/12/03][337]

46. Paz-Tal Gershon,(2002)," Talking Language " & " Icon Language ",Report to ITI,As A part of Tip Algorithm- How To Recognize The Feeling & Emotional Situation & Wants Of Traveler Requesting Solvings His Information Problems While Traveling, ( Code 5087,5081,8322),3/2002.[094](part of Anomaly)

47. Paz-Tal Gershon,(2006),"The Differentiation Between The Internet Technology and The Algorithm TIP Technology", To Help Travelers ,Report, Code 6609,9/2006.[493]

48. Price Kenneth(2006)," Professional Opinion About The Importance of The Innovation Technology Merchandising" In The Face of Practices ,As Algorithm T.I.P, to create the Business & Public Advantage, Related To Tourism Information System, Also Present In Regional Tel Aviv Court No 490/96,10/2002,15/10/06.[501]

49. Paris Municipality City Prospect ,(2010),"New Concept ",for Tourists, Paris, 2010.[188]

50. "Tripatini",(2010),www.tripatini.com, Canada forum -Tourism Branding.12- 14/1/2010.[466]

51.Tourism informationstation(2010), in the center of Paris near the Louvre National Museum ,"visit& interview",Paris,,2/3/10.[616]

52.Tourphonet (As TSG),(1997), Prospect's ",No Name, For Isracard Preliminary Pilot Cooperate Whith Arkia Airline, Herth Car Rental, Hayatt Hotels International etc, Published 1997/8.[320][ belong also to 305] Gershon Paz-Tal, Commercial Preliminary Pilot No 03- for Tourphonet Service for Isracard -Preferred Credit Card Company in Israel,1997.[320]

52A. Travel-Gold-Rush-2020-Report,(2010), (Oxford & Amadeus) "Pioneering Growth and Probability Trends in the Travel Sector"- Conference, Developed By Oxford Economics [University] in Partnership with Amadeus Technology Group, in UK,10/2010.[522A].[522]

53. U.K, "Tourist Information phone ,(1991), 22 Lines, Prospect Of London And Map" By London Tourist Board And Convention Bureau of London,1991. [186]

54. UNWTO,(2009), "Tourism Highlights",2009 Edition. UNWTO.[522]

55."United Nations Conference On Trade And Development" ,Information Economy Report 2005 , 200 pages, New York, 2005 .[079][079A]

56. WTO,(2001), No Name," Tourism Markets Trends-2001" , Edition WTO. Madrid 2001.[293]

57. WTO,(2001)," One Assessment, Nine Major Challenges" Sept 2001 Report Of The Secretary General WTO Osaka, Japan, 24-25 September 2001[516]

58. WTO-Business Council,(2001), "The Future Of D.M.O's As Intermediaries", Figure No 2.1.1,In E- Business For Tourism, WTO.9/2001.[333]

59. WTO,(2001)," Nine Major Challenges ",p5 ,General Assembly Report Of Secretary General. Sept 2001.[052]

60. WTO ,(2003),"Team 2003,Customer Content Across The Communication Life Cycle", Figure 21, In WTO-E-Business For Tourism 2000,2003.[326]

61. WTO,(1998)," Tourism 2020 Vision ", A New Forcaste From WTO,6/1998.[514]

62. WTO,(2001),"E-Business For Tourism" Page 281, Practical Guidelines for Tourism Destination And Businesses,9/2001.[515]

63. WTO,(2001), Provision Edition," Tourism Market Trends ",world overview & tourism topics,p55,2001.[051]

64. Caroline Bremner and Fiona Jaffery,(2008),"Global Trends Report 2008", World Travel Market 10 – 13 Nov 2008.www.WTM london.com.[297]

65. Shmuel Ellis.(2013), Professor, Head of The Faculty of Management , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.,Tel Aviv University, Professional Report Evaluation- on the research -"Tourism information as a "lever” for branding and marketing of the State" to the International Studies, University of Paris 8, Sorbonne,23.1.2013, France.

66.Arie Reichel.(2013), Professor ,Dean, Guilford Glazer Faculty of Business and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Professional Report Evaluation- on the research -"Tourism information as a "lever” for branding and marketing of the State" , International Studies, University of Paris 8, Sorbonne, 11.2.2013,France.

67.Pilot No 01 :"…[the price is about 1/2 $ ] …3…the consumer wants: 20.6% events and festivals… 6.6% museums, 26.2 % accommodations…, 12.5% travel routes,…8.8% opening & closing time…,17% leisure activities. Commercial Preliminary pilot [303]….Pilot No 02: …3… what the people ask for :10.6%-accommodations, 88.3% attractions, 3.4% events, 10.8% travel routes, 62.8% others…4…most of the people have no idea what they really want to see…to go…to do…[304] Poilot No 03: …3… what the people ask for :10.6% accommodations, 88.3% attractions, 3.4% events, 10.8% travel routes, 62.8% others…4…lots of people have no idea what they really want to see…to go…[110,305]. Paz-Tal Gershon, Commercial Preliminary Pilots Report for Tour-Phonet as T.S.G Service joint Isracard- Preferred Credit Card Company in Israel,1997-2006 [305].

68.The Issue- 1."…only 15% from the surfing's lowd and print A4 pages when searching tourism information from the portals…" 2…"…people surfing in 14 portals in everage …" 3 "…about 70% build an basic plan for touring for trip or vacation…" 4…"…in everage surfing spend 7 weeks for searching tourism information…in everage of 25 sites befor making decision…",5. "…Pump information…"[105,182] in the Paz-Tal.G,(2013),Tourism Information As A Liver for Branding And Marketing Of A State As A Destination,Doctorate Theses Research,Paris 8 univer (Sorbonne)France.2013.

69."…the Internet as a medium…the Lake of personal contact…the exisiting…(by the Internet) systems are not adequate to provide for efficient personalization of interaction in the area of travel services, as they cannot support the user (F.I.T) in all the phases of travel planning…(and his activities)… " (Manolis Wallace, et al, 2004),Information Technology & Tourism,Vol.6 pp.181-193, Copyright,2004 Cognizant Coomm.Corp.WWW.Cognizantcommunication.com

76.The Issue-1.The political situation in the world is not good, but this point must not become a reason to do nothing in the tourism markets, the opposite must be done…p131…2. Currents situation form the agent's points of sale is very bad…3.because of the security image's problem ,they need to allow "human touch"& personal service during the stage of trip planning "…someone [with knowledge] that can talk with customer…" p133….3." ...the official representatives of tourism information in the world are very low, very trivial…very bad…"4."…. must not imitate the world….not have tourism's main activity be marketed by the internet…!" P141…5 "...this point is emphasized because of Israel's situation which needs a lot of personal & human communicating…"6.The state must reach the niche market…by tourism motivation approach, each market with separate activities…7.Not to act in the regular holiday market…not in the sun market…not in the beach market…p 143…etc….8.the presentation of these points are in www.tourism.gov.il/tourism... Erenset & Yang,(2006), "Research Report – The Potencial Tourism Markets of Israel", pp 131,133,143,141,Published by Tourism Ministry ,Israel ,Nov 2006. [76]

77. The Point-1…citation of Mr. Udi Manbar- deputy of Google worldwide engineering: who stands behind 500 changes in the search engines in Google…2…the difficulty is that in Google we have 1/3 total new questioner of all the questionnaires….3…we need to provide answers to them…4…you have a real difficulty to understand how much it is…how difficult it is…"…. Shmoshkovits Etay,"The Israeli who search for you in Google",Yediot Achronot, Newspaper, Israel 19/10/10.[077]

78.The Issue-1..the cellular will change the role of the tourist's life…2…just for a day in New York you can take a route to New York City for touring for about 4 Sterling…3…and a lot more of tourism commercial& practical usages… Millington Kevin," Mobile Phones: you won't leave home without them", Tourism Trendspotter, in Tourism the Magazine of the Tourism Society, Quarter 1, Issue 126 ,UK,2006. [078]

79. The Point-1…give the answers - what really is the main factor to motivate the people to travel to a certain destination…2….the problems & practices to operate a call center combined to the internet…p170…3…the need to have the call center be united over the day by competitions during the day in the city, region or country…p170…4…the traveler wants all the tourist elements in the limited geographical area to be under one roof, to be included in the "one stop shop", and to have the ability to give answers in one call…5…the traveler is interested in high quality tourism information…p174…6…their need to act under the tourist behavior orientation [Tourism logic]…for individuals [F.I.T]…p174….7…their need to operate with human friendship to the consumer [traveler]…that which brings to the right decision of the tourist himself…[visit the destination] p144-145…. United Nations Conference On Trade And Development ,"Information Economy Report 2005" , 200 pages, New York, 2005 .[079] [079 A]:last examples - a: "The rise in the number of fully independent travelers (F.I.T) has certainly created new tourism trends in Europe, as in other parts of the world. Around 80 per cent of British travelers to New Zealand are (F.I.T) Royal Intel - Tourism Intelligence Consultants … Compiled by Research Division.(2012), for Sabah Tourism Board- MALAYSIA as per 21st Feb 2012….Knowing this group’s choice of destination and type of accommodation are therefore among the most important concerns of travel-related businesses. As one of the top establishment types catering to free independent travelers, youth hostels need to understand the effects of the increase of F.I.Ts on their businesses….Number of visits to UK: by region of residence and purpose of visit 2006 to 2010 The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority ISSN 1360-5895 Travel Trends 2010[079B] …In 2010Over 300,000 interviews conducted representing about 0.2 per cent of travelers. Feasibility study on digital pen tech