MOTIVATION OF CULTURAL ASSOCIATION MEMBERS IN GREEK TRADITIONAL SEMINARS

DIFFERENCES DUE TO DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS

 

Konstantina Efentaki1, Filippos Filippou2

1Tourism Management, West Attica, Agiou Spryridonos Aigaleo, Greece, e-mail: kefentaki@uniwa.gr

2Physical Education and Sport Science, Democritous University of Thrace, Greece

 

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate differentiation of individuals from various dance groups of cultural associations’ motivation, who attend traditional dance workshops, organized throughout Greece due to their demographic characteristics. The study’s sample is consisted by 381 men and women of over 15 years of age. All the participants attend Greek dance seminars.  The responders were 224 people from Athens and 157 from province. The Greek version (Filippou et al., 2019) of the original “BRSQ (Behavior Regulation in Sport Questionnaire)” (Lonsdale, Hodge & Rose, 2008) was used for the data collection. The following statistical analyses were performed: a) Descriptive statistics, b) Cronbach’s alpha to examine the reliability of the factors c) T-test for independent samples, to ascertain any differences due to “men and women” d) One – Way Analysis of variance to indicate any differences due to “age”, “family situation” and “educational status”. This study found that the participants are largely internally motivated. More specifically, most important motivating factors for participating in traditional dance seminars were “internal motivation in general”, “internal motivation for experience”, “internal motivation for achievement” and “internal motivation for knowledge”. Furthermore, showed that there are differences in the incentives for participation between the groups attending traditional dance seminars, regarding to age and gender.

 

Key Words: Greek traditional dance, traditional dance seminars, motivations

 

1 INTRODUCTION

Tradition is the knowledge accumulated over a long period of time in a society and passed from one generation to the next. This knowledge is related to songs, dances, fairy tales, theatre performances etc., which is subject to constant change over the years. As social and political institutions, human values, ideals and lifestyles patterns undergo changes, so does tradition (Kyriakidou-Nestoros, 1993).

The notion of folklore refers to the anonymous creation that passes mouth-to-mouth and is the result of constant differentiation and transformation (Drandakis, 1993). The spontaneous expression and the life-gained experience constitute the main features of the folk tradition. As part of this folk tradition, dance is characterized by word of mouth and creativity, collectivity, anonymity, improvisation, vitality, energy, change and continuous transformation. The cultural elements of the past are constantly renewed and shaped within the traditional society. As Meraklis (1973) points out, during this transformation, some elements vanish, others remain intact or are adapted to the new emerging conditions.

Undoubtedly, the dancing phenomenon in Greece has not remained untouched over time, as is usually the case in cultural creation. All cultural creations change in order to be adapted to and from the various transformations of the society in which they are created. The Greek dances are not an exception: they may still be present in local communities on the occasion of various customs and habits but at the same time they have started to take a different form. Koutsouba (2009), argues that the current dancing performances constitute the best example of this transformation. 

The Greek dances have undergone the same kind of changes that the Greek society has experience as a whole. In the past, the focus of Greek society action took place in the countryside. However, the greatest part of the Greek society is nowadays established in cities. This massive internal and urban integration wave does not mean that customs and traditions have been forgotten; it underlines the fact, however, that dance has been transferred to another environment and it is cut off from its natural place of origin, which was the Greek countryside. In this new context, cultural associations as well as the teaching of Greek dances in schools have been the new means for the preservation and transmission of dances and their culture (Koutsuba, 2009).

These types of alterations of the Greek dances are not widely accepted as there are controversial views. On the one hand, the transfer of dances to a new environment and the changes they have undergone are considered reasonable and acceptance, given the fact that social conditions have also changed. On the other hand, the use of Greek dances in a new framework is considered a major alteration of their core functional role and as a result a crucial transformation of the folklore element, in a quite negative sense (Koutsuba, 2009). This folklore movement was developed in Greece in the late 1970s and its main characteristic was the proliferation not only of local cultural associations but also, at the same time, of the people who desired to learn traditional dances in a ballroom (Filippou, 2002).

Nowadays, dance cultural associations develop actions, in order to contribute to the preservation and dissemination of the Greek traditional customs. This is achieved throughout various activities, such as the teaching of traditional dances, songs, musical instruments, and the collection of traditional costumes throughout Greece etc. In addition, they organize local fairies, festivals (domestic or foreign), traditional nights, speeches, cultural excursions. In the late 70s seminars of Greek traditional dance are organized for the first time by institutions and/or individuals and are initially attended only by foreigners (mainly French). The Greek public started participating about ten years later in these seminars. However, the number of these seminars is constantly increasing and so is the public interest in them (Efentaki & Dimitropoulos, 2015).

The purpose of this research is to investigate the differentiation of the motivation of various social groups (members / dancers / dance teachers of cultural dance associations) who attend seminars of Greek traditional dance according to their demographic characteristics. The BRSQ questionnaire "Behavior Regulation in Sport Questionnaire" (Lonsdale, Hodge & Rose, 2008), modified for the Greek population by Filippou et al., (2019) has been used in order to assess this motivation.

 

 

2 Literature review

2.1Cultural tourism and cultural heritage

Notwithstanding that dance is considered an expression of culture, it has become a tourist attraction a long time ago (Wall & Xie, 2005). The touristic dance throughout folk tradition, museums, music, dance and arts is considered an important element that provides added value to the tourist product and can inspire millions of tourists to visit new destinations. The touristic dance is part of cultural tourism since it provides tourists with opportunities for cultural experience. It is refereed to tourists who wish to live a special experience through their participation in dance events in their destination.

Many scholars argue that an individual's participation in an event is linked to both leisure and tourism incentives. The aim of several studies focused on the reasons that a person chooses to attend an event, the satisfaction that the person receives from it and the connection of motivations with their particular characteristics (Skoultsos, 2014). Getz (1991) found that the four basic categories of needs (physical, cultural, interpersonal, recognition) are satisfied through participation in a dance event. Similarly, physical needs are satisfied by participating in sporting events or by relaxing from participating in a dance festival. Cultural needs are also satisfied by experiencing the culture of the place, by participating in local dance and/or music festivals. Additionally, interpersonal needs are satisfied by communicating with the festival audience. Finally, the need for recognition is satisfied by participating in activities that enhance self-confidence (Getz, 1991).

 

a.Participation Motives

In order to achieve their goals, needs and instincts, individuals develop different kinds of motivation. While the motivations and needs of individuals are considered important factors for their satisfaction, sometimes the goals they set are guided by expected rewards. In specific, the four factors that affect the motivations of each individual are (a) the state (environment and external stimulus), (b) temperament (state and internal state of the individual), (c) the goal (purpose of behavior and attitude) and (d) the tool (tools for achieving the goal). According to Harre et al. (2015), when a person is highly motivated, he/she may choose long-term goals. At certain times, each person wants to meet his/her personal needs, such as the need for recognition by others (psychological need) or the need for participation in groups (social need). Once the goal is set, the motivation process begins. Therefore, motivation is characterized by the personal achievements that each one wish to meet (Harre et al., 2015).

According to the theory of self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 2008) a continuous exogenous motivation is proposed that varies from the degree to which the behavior is self-determined. It is characterized by:

(a) The external regulation. These are behaviors that are mainly controlled by external factors, such as deadlines, punishments, etc.

(b) The internal regulation. Behaviors that are formed mainly by external pressures that has evolved inwards, but has not really been internalized. As a result, the person can participate in an activity because he feels obligated to do so.

(c) The specified regulation. In this case, the individual's behavior is internally controlled and validated. At this stage the behavior is identified with the result of the activity. Usually, individuals aim to achieve the goals they have set, because they believe that achieving it will bring benefits when in fact the specific activity does not cause them any joy. Behavior is internally regulated by the individual without external enforcement (although the reasons for participating trigged essentially from the external environment).

(d) The integrated regulation. It is a completely internalized behavior. The individuals express themselves by the participation in the activity and there is a consistency with his beliefs, values and needs. The integrated regulation is associated with feelings of self-fulfillment and psychological well-being (Weinstein et al., 2011).

 

2.2Participant motives in traditional dances

Rokka et al. (2015) aimed to investigate the incentives for participation of students attending Greek traditional dance classes in various cultural dance clubs. They also examined whether factors such as gender, classroom participation and participation experience differentiate their motivations for participation. The results showed that students take part in dance activities as a recreational activity. By dancing they break away from the daily conventional school curriculum, eliminating stress and improving their physical condition (Rokka et al., 2015).

The research of Fillipou et al. (2010) investigates whether the demographic characteristics of foreigners participating in Greek traditional dances could be factors that differentiate their participation motivations. The research, whose sample consisted of 451 people, concludes that the traditional dance itself was a motivation for their participation in cultural tourism. The most important motivations for participation were the following: Greek culture, fighting boredom, social relations and the improvement of their dancing skills. In terms of their demographic characteristics, age and years of participation, they were a differential factor of participation motivation. The results also showed that the sample is interested in the knowledge gained during their participation and in what is ultimately achieved. People participate for the pleasure they receive from participating in the activity, regardless of the difficulties they encounter and the efforts they make. In addition, the type of dance is a factor in differentiating the motivations for participation since the participants in traditional dance lessons are to a greater extent internally motivated (Fillipou et al., 2010).

The research of Serbezis & Genti (2009) investigates the reasons that led French people to participate in Greek traditional dance seminars organized in France. It also examines the demographic characteristics as factors in differentiating their participation motivations. 215 people participated in the study. Improving dance skills, combating boredom as well as relaxing from the daily routine, gaining new experiences and practices were the major motivations for their participation in the seminars. The age and educational level of the sample were not factors in differentiating the participation motivations. Men participated to a greater extent than women to get in touch with Greek culture through dance. Finally, people with many years of participation in dance activities were interested in improving their dance level to a greater extent than people with few years of participation (Serbezis & Genti, 2009).

 

 

3 Research methodology

3.1Sample and Data Collection

The sample consists of dancers, members of cultural dance clubs and dance schools from all over Greece. In total, the participants are 381 people over the age of 15 and that has participated in Greek traditional dance seminars in Greece. The participants were randomly selected. More specifically, the sample consists of 129 men and 252 women and it is divided into ages of six groups: 14 people in total are aged 15 to 18 years, 89 people are aged 19 to 29 years, 116 are aged 30 to 39 years, 94 people are aged 40 to 49 years, 55 people are aged 50 to 59 years and 13 people are over 60 years old. The majority of the sample (ie, 73.5%) consists of university graduates and holders of postgraduate degrees (Table I).

Table 1 Demographic characteristics (gender, age, family status, educational status)

Measurements

Objects

      Percentage %

 

Gender

  Male

39.2

 

  Female

60.8

Age

15-18

           3.7

 

19-29

23.4

 

30-39

30.4

 

40-49

24.7

 

50-59

14.4

 

  > 60

  3.4

Marital Status

Single

52.5

 

Married

13.4

 

Married with children

32.3

 

Widow/-er

  0.8

 

Widow/-er with children

  1.0

Educational Status

         High School

23.6

 

         University

53.8

 

         Postgraduate

19.7

 

         Doctorate

  2.9

 

 

For the incentives assessment the researchers used the questionnaire "BRSQ: Behavior Regulation in Sport Questionnaire" (Lonsdale, Hodge & Rose, 2008) modified for the Greek population (Filippou et al., 2019). This questionnaire consists of 36 variables under the general question "I participate in Greek traditional dance seminars because…" which correspond to 9 factors. All answers were given on a seven-point Likert scale where:

1 = absolute not true   2 = not very true        3 = not quite true        4 = not sure    

5 = true enough           6 = very true               7 = absolute true

 

3.2 Validity and Reliability of the measures

 

Table 2 Validity and Reliability

Factors

Cronbach a

Mean

Std.D.

1.Internal Motivation in general

 

.95

 

  6.46

 

 1.02

2.Internal Motivation for experience

 

.91

 

  6.39

 

  .98

3.Internal Motivation for knowledge

 

.91

 

  6.25

 

 1.08

4.Internal Motivation for achievement

 

.92

 

  5.92

 

 1.25

5.Recognizable Regulation

.85

  5.88

 1.19

6.Integrated Regulation

.86

  5.76

 1.29

7.Internal Pressure

.88

  1.65

  1.24

8.Lack of Motivation

.93

1.6

 1.15

9.External Regulation

.87

      1.20

   .58

 

 

To control the coherence of the variables, Cronbach's alpha index was used in the present study (Churchill, 1979). When the value of the index is above 0.70, it is considered satisfactory. (Spector, 1992). Consequently, all factors scored a high level of reliability (α> 0.85).

            According to the mean (M) calculations, it is found that the participants are largely internally motivated. More specifically, the factors “Internal Motivation in general” (Average 6.46), “Internal Motivation for knowledge” (Average6.25), “Internal Motivation for experience” (Average6.39) are experienced greater intensity in comparison to “Internal Motivation for achievement” (Average5.92), “Recognizable Regulation” (Average5.88) and “Integrated Regulation” (Average5.76) that follows, while tthe “External Regulation” factor had the lowest value.

 

3.3 Data analysis and findings

 

One Way Anova statistical analysis was performed to identify any differences regarding to “Age”, “Marital Status” and “Educational Level” of the sample.

Table3 One Way Anova - Age Differences

Factors

19-29 years

30-39 years

40-49 years

50-59 years

>60 years

      P

 

M            SD

M            SD

M            SD

M            SD

M            SD

 

External Regulation

 

1.14        0.33

 

1.12       0.41

 

1.44    0.95

 

1.12     0.33

 

1.02     0.69

 

0.001

Recognized Regulation

 

6.12        0.94

 

5.87       0.41

 

5.53    1.29 

 

5.88     1.19

 

6.42     0.57

 

0.006

Integrated Regulation

 

6.13        0.85

 

5.59       1.39

 

5.57    1.35

 

5.66     1.47

 

6.33     0.66

 

0.007

Internal Motivation for knowledge

 

6.51        0.75

 

6.32       0.90

 

5.90    1.40

 

6.34     1.10

 

6.10     0.94

 

0.006

Internal Motivation for achievement

 

6.17        0.99

 

5.86       1.29

 

5.56    1.41

 

6.09     1.24

 

6.38     0.67

 

0.011

 

 

The results revealed statistically significant differences for the factors:

(a) “External Regulation” F (5.374) = 4.34, p <.05 People (between 40-49 years showed a statistically higher score (M 1.44 & SD 0.95) compared to those aged between 30-39 years (M 1.12 & SD 0.41) and between 50-59 years (M 1.12 & SD 0.33).

(b) “Recognized Regulation” F (5.375) = 3.30, p <.05 Younger people (between 19-29 years) had a statistically higher score (M 6.12 & SD 0.94) compared to those who were between 40-49 years (M. 5.53 & SD 1.29).

(c) “Integrated Regulation” F (5.375) = 3.27, p <.05 Younger people (between 19-29 years) showed a statistically higher score (M. 6.13 & SD 0.85) compared to those who were between 30-39 (M 5.59 & SD 1.39) and between 40-49 years (M 5.57 & SD 1.35).

(d) “Internal motivation for knowledge” F (5.375) = 3.33, p <.05 Younger people (between 19-29 years) showed a statistically higher score (M6.51 & SD 0.75) compared to those who were aged between 40-49 years (M 5.90 & SD 1.40).

(e) “Internal Motivation for achievement” F (5.375) = 3.01, p <.05 Younger people (between 19-29 years) had a statistically higher score (M 6.17 & SD 0.99) compared to those who were aged between 40-49 years (M 5.56 & SD 1.41).

 

Differences depending on marital status

One Way Anova Analysis was performed for any differences with regards to “Marital Status”. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences for any factor.

 

Differences depending on the educational level

One Way Anova Analysis was performed for any differences due to the “Educational Level”. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences for any factor.

 

A T-test analysis was performed to investigate the existence or non-statistical significance of the motivational factors in relation to gender.

Table4 T-test analysis - Gender differences

 

Factors

   Male

    Mean               Std.D.

 Female

    Mean              Std.D.

Lack of Motivation

1.88

1.48

1.46

0.92

External Regulation

1.33

0.78

1.14

0.44

Recognizable Regulation

5.48

1.33

6.09

1.06

Integrated Regulation

5.38

1.50

5.96

1.13

Internal Motivation in general

6.21

1.24

6.60

0.86

Internal Motivation for knowledge

5.92

1.38

6.42

0.84

Internal Motivation for experience

6.07

1.30

6.56

0.74

Internal Motivation for achievement

5.61

1.51

6.08

1.07

 

 

The results showed that gender can be a differentiating factor, for:

a) “Lack of Motivation”: it is observed that there is a statistically significant difference in the variance of the two groups at a significance level of 5%, as confirmed by the results of the test: t (180) = 2.97, p <.05 Men showed a statistically higher score (M 1.88 & SD 1.48), on the factor “Lack of Motivation” compared to women (M 1.46 & SD 0.92).

b) “External Regulation”: t (169) = 2.55, p <.05 Men showed a statistically higher score (M 1.33 & SD 0.78) on the factor “External Regulation” compared to women (M 1.14 & SD 0.44).

c) “Recognized Regulation”: t (213) = -4.48, p<.05 Women showed a statistically higher score (M 6.09 & SD 1.06) on the "Recognizable Adjustment" factor compared to men (M 5.48 & SD 1.33)

d) “Integrated Regulation”: t (205) = -3.82, p <.05 Women showed a statistically higher score (M 5.96 & SD 1.13) on the factor “Integrated Regulation” compared to men (M 5.38 & SD 1.50).

e) “Internal Motivation in general": t (193) = -3.13, p <.05 Women showed a statistically higher score (M 6.60 & SD 0.86) on the factor "Internal Motivation in general” compared to men (M 6.21 & SD 1.24).

f) “Internal Motivation for knowledge”: t (178) = -3.79, p<.05 Women showed a statistically higher score (M 6.42 & SD 0.84) on the factor "Internal Motivation for knowledge” compared to men (M 5.92 & SD 1.38).

g) “Internal Motivation for Experience”: t (171) = -3.92, p <.05 Women showed a statistically higher score (M 6.56 & SD 0.74) on the factor “Internal Motivation for experience”, compared to men (M 6.07 & SD 1.30).

h) “Internal Motivation for achievement”: t (196) = -3.17, p<.05 Women showed a statistically higher score (M 6.08 & SD 1.07) on the factor “Internal Motivation for achievement” compared to men (M 5.61 & SD 1.51).

 

 

4 DISCUSSION

Traditional dance seminars appeared in Greece in the late 1970s. This activity was initially organized by various institutions and/or individuals, upon request by foreigners (mainly French). The cultural wealth of our country in the fields of history, language, monuments, nature, music, dance, customs, festivals, gastronomy, etc. attracted the interest of this specific target group. In fact, the first visitors who showed interest in the traditional dance of Greece as a living part of its intangible cultural heritage were organized in those groups. Towards the end of the 80s, Greek social groups (dancers-members of cultural groups and teachers of traditional dances) began to attend these seminars as well. Since then, the number of seminars has been growing, as has the interest in them, mainly by young and middle-aged groups which are characterized by a high financial and educational level.

In the present study, 36% of the participants are between the ages of 19-49 years and 17.8% are people aged above 50 years. The sample of this study confirms that a large percentage of participants in traditional dance workshops are highly educated, as 280 out of the 381, ie a total of 73.5%, are graduates (53.8%) or hold a master's degree (19.7%). Taking into account the “educational origin”, given the fact that only 18% of the participants whose parents who do not have a high school education, manage to have higher education nationwide (OECD report, 2018), is safe to conclude that people with a lower education (and by extension economic and social background) have also a relatively smaller interest and participation in dance seminars. In other words, the social categories and groups that presumably - and traditionally - had the traditional dance in their “natural” everyday life, they do not renew and/or regenerated this relationship by participating in modern educational folk dance activities. It is therefore possible and worth exploring throughout “folk dance education” the phenomenon of an “urbanization” and/or “urbanism” (displacement and relocation) of the dancing experience and knowledge from its practitioners to its copyists. The above characteristics of the participants are confirmed by several previous studies (Baxevanos 2008; Efentaki & Dimitropoulos, 2015; Biniakos et al., 2020).

The duration of the traditional dance seminars varies depending on the purpose and the place chosen each time. Those with a short duration (1 - 3 days) serving usually local communities, either in urban centers or in the province. Basically, they stimulate the feeling of belonging and skills of their member for specific cultural and/or geographical area (dance unit). The ultimate aim of these seminars is either to participate in a future performance, or to enhance in a specific dance repertoire, especially when the participants are dance teachers. Longer seminars are usually held in areas that combine natural beauty (mountain or sea, various attractions, etc.), participation in local festivals and customs and they are addressed to a large number of participants. An overwhelming 76.3% of the sample agrees or totally agrees with the phrase that traditional dance seminars are a potential motivation for domestic tourism. Besides, the combination of traveling to a beautiful area with an activity that fills them with joy, experience and pleasure is in itself a major motivation. According to Bob Mckercher and Hillary du Cros (2002), cultural tourism includes four elements: a) tourism, b) the use of cultural heritage assets, c) the consumption of experiences and products and d) the tourist (visitor).

This is the reason after all for examples from countries worldwide using different dance events to attract tourists. In Ireland there is a significant correlation between dance and tourism, which indeed has shaped Ireland's cultural heritage. The growing interest of tourists in dance has resulted to a proliferation in dance performances that are tourist oriented. This growing popularity of Irish national and traditional dances is not only a unique expression of its culture (Foley, 2018) but it has been also and still is a part of Ireland's tourism product that provides tourists fun and relaxation together with the opportunity to participate in the local culture (Cronin & O'Connor, 2003).

This study concludes that the most important motivating factors for participating in traditional dance seminars were “internal motivation in general”, “internal motivation for experience”, “internal motivation for achievement” and “internal motivation for knowledge”. Consequently, individuals participate mainly for the feeling of joy and pleasure they receive from this activity. According to previous studies, the dancers of the traditional dances had as a main motivation the pleasure for their participation. They were mainly motivated by internal motivations, such as stimulation and knowledge (Filippou et al, 2016), (Stavridis & Tsirogiannis, 2015). Therefore, the constant efforts to achieve their goals and to gain deeper knowledge about the subject, pushes all individuals to repeated and increased participation. The dispersion of the answers is also remarkable, with the largest percentage of 32% concentrated in the smallest participation (1-3 seminars), a total percentage of 68% participating repeatedly and 22.8% of the sample answering that they have attended more than 17 traditional dance seminars. The above findings are confirmed by a recent similar research (Filippou et al., 2019).

A large proportion of the sample, 44.1% are extremely experienced as they acquired dancing experience of over 21 years and a percentage of 25.7% have experience of 11-20 years of dancing. This demonstrates their constant and ongoing participation in cultural institutions related to learning traditional dances. The work of cultural associations all over Greece is important, as through their operation, the dissemination and preservation of traditional dance from generation to generation is achieved, while at the same time the dissemination of the cultural tradition and heritage of the country is strengthened.

The significance of the participants’ “age” is particularly interesting, between the groups 19–29 years and 40-49 years, for the factors “integrated regulation”, “internal motivation for knowledge”, “internal motivation for achievement”, while at the same time, the former group state that the activity itself does not bring them much joy. However, the study reveals that younger people are highly internally motivated compared to older people attending traditional dance seminars. They feel that they express themselves by participating, enjoy the feeling that comes from their participation and experience feelings of joy and pleasure from the knowledge of the new elements that they finally acquire. It is understandable that older people show reduced interest as their prolonged participation in this activity creates feelings of monotony and routine participation. At this point it should be noted the enormous difficulties that dance seminars have to confront in terms of organization, quality and content. In addition, it is typical characteristic of these seminars to have overcrowded rooms with participants of different ages and with a different dance and theoretical background (completely beginners, beginners, advanced, dance teachers, dancers etc.).

The study reveals that gender is a key factor in differentiating participation motivation. The majority of the sample consists of women, accounting for 66% compared to 34% for men. Thus, it is obvious that this activity is mainly exercised by women who, while stating that they are not particularly happy with their participation, nevertheless choose it because they believe that it offers them many important benefits in their lives. At the same time, the results reveal that they are strongly internally motivated compared to men. They feel that dancing is part of their personality, they are given the opportunity to express themselves and they experience many positive emotions. The knowledge they acquire by participating in traditional dance seminars as well as the rich experiences and the achievement of their personal goals are elements that strengthen their motivation to participate. The effort to improve their skills and fulfill long-term goals reveals their desire to gain deeper knowledge and specialization as either dancers or dance teachers. The above conclusion is confirmed by a similar research (McCleary et al, 2005). It should be also noted that traditional dance seminars, manage to offer a variety of different teaching approaches. Moreover, females are characterized by less influence from external factors such as gaining a payment or pressure from external factors compared to males who do not seem to understand the reasons for participation. While stating that they do not particularly enjoy the activity, in the end they follow the group because they feel pressure and because they want to satisfy the members of the team they belong to.

 

 

5 Conclusions

The most important conclusions drawn from the present study are the following:

  1. The research hypotheses of the present study confirm that the participants in traditional dance seminars are largely internally motivated. Through their participation they experience feelings of joy and enjoyment and gain rich knowledge and experience. The authenticity and the acquisition of authentic experiences on the one hand and the feeling of belonging to a group as well as the sense of enjoying a shared experience with other people on the other hand are the key motivators of free time and travel (Getz, 1991).
  2. It is confirmed that there are differences in the incentives for participation between the groups attending traditional dance seminars, regarding to:
  1. age and
  2. gender
  1. The initial assumptions were not confirmed as the educational level and marital status were not a dividing factor for any participation incentive.

The findings of this research stress the necessity for the institutions that are responsible for organizing seminars of traditional dances, to study in depth the motives of the participants. They should focus on the better organization of all the activities that accompany the dance seminars and adopt quality practices regarding other services they offer, tailored of course to the needs of the participants. In order to strengthen participants’ motivation and ensure their ongoing and stable participation, special attention should be paid to the place where these seminars are held. Moreover; an effort should be made for direct connection and participation in events that include traditional customs of the local community and there should be planned visits to historical sites, monuments and sights of the area. Finally, recreational time-zones should be included in order to develop social relationships among participants.

In order to draw safer conclusions, further research should be carried out, including a larger sample and a greater participation of the male sample. Moreover, other motivations and incentives for participation should be researched. This kind of research should concern the official government and make them question whether the utilization of such cultural activities attracts “visitors” (either domestic or foreign) and whether, at the very end, they increase tourism flows, promote trade and enforce local economy. Competent institutions should realize the importance and power of our cultural heritage in which traditional dance, music and song are integrated and reinforce educational programs (formal and informal) at all levels of education (Efentaki & Filippou, 2020), in order to treat the traditional dance not just as another kinetic and gymnastic event, but as a more complex social phenomenon (Biniakos et al, 2020).

 

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