Going Green in Egyptian Hotels: Importance and Implementation of Water and Energy Practices

 

HOSSAM SAID SHEHATA

Department of Hotel Management, Alexandria University, Egypt

 

SHIRWET ELFEEL

Department of Hotel Management, Alexandria University, Egypt

 

 

ABSTRACT

Due to the growing interest in environmental issues, many businesses have become more environmentally friendly. The hospitality industry worldwide is beginning to adopt the concept of a green environment. Hotels are more likely to invest in the implementation of green practices into many of their facilities activities. Such practices will help decrease the operating costs and increase the profits. It is important for hotel managers to be aware that green practices will not only help to protect the environment, but will increase revenue as well. A hotel uses large amounts of energy and water for daily operations that puts stress on the environment. Therefore, hotel management, staff and guests should be actively encouraged to participate in environmental practices. Moreover, government authorities may adopt a significant role to facilitate green practices. With awareness increasing, tourists are more likely to look for eco-friendly hotels. Accordingly, hotels are beginning to implement various innovative methods to increase the green concept throughout operations.

The research aims to investigate the importance and the implementation of green practices in hotels in Egypt, regardless of being certified and non-certified. It will depict the current status of green practices in Egyptian hotels, specifically in two main areas—water and energy consumption. It aims to determine the degree of awareness toward green practices and their level of implementation.

To achieve the objectives, the research used a quantitative and qualitative data collection approach through reviewing literature and distributing questionnaires. The research instrument utilized was online questionnaires. A benchmark was developed by gathering reliable information from the green certifications’ benchmarks in Egypt. The population of the study included only 5-star hotels in Egypt, which are 150 hotels. This category represents the niche market of hotels that is more capable to adopt such relatively new trend. A link to the online questionnaire was emailed to all population elements, from which 49 were valid for data analysis, giving a response rate 32.6%.

Results of the research indicated that there is a significant difference between importance and implementation of green practices in Egyptian Hotels; with variance in each group practices. The exception was for those practices that are related to water conservation in green-certified five-star hotels; since most of the practices that were considered important, from managers’ points of view, were implemented in their hotels. The outcome will give hotels recommendations to enhance green practices and encourage potential implementation.

Key Words: Going Green, Water Practices, Energy Practices, Green Certifications, Hotels, Egypt

1    Introduction

Many people are beginning to realize that the Earth is quickly becoming inhospitable due to the huge amount of air, land, and water pollution. They began to recognize that there is an ideal opportunity for people to take a step toward a greener Earth to help future generations. Based on such a perspective, many corporations have become more environmentally friendly.

Tourism is one of the most promising drivers for growth of the world economy. While tourism has many advantages for any country, there are negative impacts associated with it as well. Some of these may include air, water and noise pollution, negative social aspects, labor problems, and detrimental effects on animal and plant life, along with natural resources (Bohdanowicz, 2005; Dodds & Butler, 2005; Holden, 2008; Graci, 2009; Hall & Lew, 2009; Micioni, 2009). Tourism and the environment go hand in hand. People travel far and wide to enjoy recreational activities such as skiing in the mountains or surfing on tropical beaches (University of Nebraska, 2010). Green Hotel Association (2006) mentioned that the environment and human well-being are connected. The hotel industry cannot ignore how their practices influence the environment (Brown, 1996; Claver-Cortes et al., 2007; Chan, 2008). In reality, a hotel uses a massive amount of energy and water for daily operations that puts stress on the environment. A hotel alone cannot maximize the energy and water savings. However, everyone involved including staff and customers should be encouraged to participate in such saving practices. Energy and water consumption has the largest effect on a trip’s ecological issue (Zein, et al., 2008). With environmental laws and awareness increasing, tourists are more likely to look for eco-friendly hotels. Accordingly, some hotels are beginning to implement various innovative methods to increase the green concept throughout operations. (Manaktola and Jauhari, 2007). In fact, the size and reach of tourism sectors make it critically important, from a global resource perspective. Slight changes toward going green have significant positive impacts (UNEP and UNWTO, 2012). The hospitality industry worldwide is starting to become environmentally viable by the implementation of green practices into their facilities. It is important for hotel managers to understand that going green will not only help the environment. But, it will decrease operating costs, allowing for increases in profits and enhancing employee retention rates (Elvis, 2013). Therefore, the hoteliers have to begin making the changes necessary for a greener tomorrow.

Accordingly, the purpose of this research is to investigate the importance and the implementation of green practices in hotels in Egypt, regardless of being certified or non-certified. It aims to determine to what extent there is awareness toward green practices and their level of implementation. Moreover, it would develop guidelines and recommendations based on the outcome to help implement green practices in hotel’s facilities.

 

2    Literature Review

2.1     Going Green History

The history of going green emerged in the 1980s and the 1990s. It was a new trend within all industries, which proved its predominance through the years (Kirk, 1995; Roarty, 1997). There are some green hotels that have been in existence for more than thirty years (Pizam, 2009).

In 1992, at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, the worlds’ leaders agreed on a global environmental movement called Local Agenda 21 (LA21). This is the well-known initiative to start off the local programs in the 21st century by developing programs and putting them together to promote green practices around the world (Leslie & Muir, 1996; Ashkin, 2007; Rachel, 2007; Klepsch & Schneider, 2012).

In 1993, Green Hotels Association started a campaign called ‘Save the Earth,’ which spread around the United States very quickly. This campaign authorized the hotels to give guests the option of not changing the sheets and towels daily. By this practice alone, hotels saved approximately $6.50 a day per occupied room and 5% of the utilities (Honey, 2008).

Many of hotel companies have developed a number of reporting tools to protect the environment. For instance, in 1997, Hilton International took an initiative action to create Hilton Environmental Reporting (HER), which is a benchmarking tool of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) used for environmental reports (Bohdanowicz et al., 2005).

2.2     Concept of Green Hotel

The concept of a green hotel is revolving around a lodging property that performs a lot of practices and programs like energy and water savings and waste management to protect the earth (Manaktola & Jauhari, 2007; Kasali, 2009; Romppanen, 2010; Hatane et al., 2012). Green hotels perform practices to reduce the negative impacts on the environment globally (Friend, 2009; Chan & Hawkins, 2010; Radwan et al., 2010), such as recycling and purchasing eco-products (Abu Taleb, 2005; Han et al., 2011). They decrease the ecological impact by reducing the energy, water and waste use (University of Nebraska, 2010; China Luxury Travel Network, 2010). On the other hand, guests may perceive going green from a different perspective, such as using renewable energy and planting organic food (Siegenthaler, 2010).

The green hotel concept is an umbrella that includes the ecolodge. Eco-hotels are environmentally friendly properties that incorporate stable green practices into their operations with the goal of preserving the Earth. Such hotels are expected to utilize distinctive strategies to minimize the negative effects on the earth; by employing strategies to use the water, energy and material in productive ways and by recycling and reducing solid waste (Alexander, 2002; Zsolnai, 2002; Han et al., 2010; Romppanen, 2010). Eco-hotels are built in a way to protect the environment, culture and the surrounding natural ecosystem. They also help increase the awareness among all partners, including employees, guests and local people to be more environmentally friendly (Wood, 2002).

2.3     Reasons for Going Green

There are two reasons to go green. First, there is an environmental imperative to adopt green practices to conserve the environment. Second, business stakeholders are already concerned about the environment. They require businesses to implement green practices by reducing the misuse of natural resources and negative impacts on them. More pressure from the government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), stakeholders and consumers is put on businesses; green practices can also be implemented (Gonzalez-Benito & Gonzalez-Benito, 2005; Saha & Darnton, 2005; Esty & Winston, 2009).

Many publications reviewed fields for going green within hotel industry, and mentioned some of their issues as well. These are usually occurring in four areas: energy (Kirk, 1996; Middleton & Hawkins, 1998; Fedrizzi & Rogers, 2002; Bohdanowicz & Martinac, 2003; Dascalaki & Balaras, 2004; Bohdanowicz, 2005; Bohdanowicz et al., 2005; Shdeifat et al., 2006; Ashkin, 2007; Budeanu, 2007; Zein, et al., 2008; Romppanen, 2010; Klepsch & Schneider, 2012; Baerbel, 2014); water (Salen, 1995; Kirk, 1996; Alexander, 2002; Cespedes Lorente et al., 2003; Essex et al., 2004; Bohdanowicz, 2005; Kasim, 2007; Holden, 2008; Zein, et al., 2008; Romppanen, 2010); waste (Kirk, 1996; Alexander, 2002; Bohdanowicz, 2005; Kasim, 2007; Zein, et al., 2008; Romppanen, 2010); and pollution (Middleton & Hawkins, 1998; Gössling, 2002; Mensah, 2006; Bohdanowicz, 2006b; Graci & Dodds 2008; Holden, 2008; Zein, et al., 2008; Hall & Lew, 2009; Romppanen, 2010; Halbe, 2013). 

2.4     Benefits for Going Green

Going green creates a good relationship with the local people and reducing poverty (OEDC, 2012). By implementing green practices, hotels will have many benefits: (1) showing the hotels’ dedication toward the environment, not only their profits; (2) helping to enhance the natural scenery; (3) making the environment healthier; (4) helping the hotels to reduce their costs (Abu Taleb, 2005; Tzschentke et al., 2008; Radwan et al., 2010); and (5) improving the hotel image (Anglada, 2000; Anguera & Ayuso, 2000; Morrow & Rondinelli, 2002; Gonzalez, 2004; Bohdanowicz et al., 2005).

Going green could bring additional benefits to employees (Graci & Dodds, 2008; Esty & Winston, 2009); achieve competitive advantage (Graci & Dodds, 2008; Esty & Winston, 2009; Lee et al., 2010); develop customer loyalty (Manaktola & Jauhari, 2007; Claver-Cortes et al., 2007; Esty & Winston, 2009; Zhang et al., 2012); optimize financial benefits (Bentley, 2007; Claver-Cortes et al., 2007; Doody, 2008; Katz, 2008; Esty & Winston, 2009; Esty & Simmons, 2011); and support law compliance, social responsibility and risk management (Graci, 2002; Graci & Dodds, 2008).

2.5     Green Hotel Certifications

The certification procedure is the strategy by which an outsider gives affirmation to the organization that an item, process, administration framework complies with certain requirements (Toth, 2000). Certification is a method for guaranteeing a movement or that an item meets certain standards. Inside the tourism industry, distinctive associations have created affirmation programs measuring diverse parts of tourism for quality within the entire industry (Bien, 2006). The application and participation in all green certification programs, eco labels, awards, codes of conduct and environmental/sustainable management systems are handled on a completely voluntary basis; with no obligation for joining an environmental initiative (EPA, 1998). When a hotel has made the decision to accept and apply green practices, they can be implemented without the use of outside experts, following the manuals and directions.

It was found that certifiers and verifiers are a boundary for hotels to be green (Chan, 2008). Certification fees are too high especially for auditing, assessment and accreditation (Toth, 2000; Chan, 2008; Tzschentke et al., 2008). However, going green will decrease hotels’ expenses and increase their revenue (Tzschentke et al., 2008). Hotels that take eco-certification programs raise their room rates. Such a case might promptly increase income for every guest, but it might cut down the volume of guests. It might drive the guests to go for less expensive hotels that do not apply green practices (Houdre, 2008; Stark, 2009). Certification helps to improve the green practices, expand benefits and give accurate data to guests (Mowforth & Munt, 2009; Geerts, 2014). Green certification is done by ensuring hotels are truly green.

The beginning was back in 1992, when Hilton International and other chains made one of the primary moves towards general green certifications in the hotel industry. They were establishing individuals from the International Hotels Environment Initiative (IHEI), which has 86 individuals including 11,200 hotels around the world. Then, it was later merged with the International Tourism Partnership (Honey, 2008). Hotels like Hyatt and Disney have their own certification programs. This additionally changes the edge in which hotels can have their own benchmarks and certifications (Bergin, 2010).

In December 1998, the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) distributed the primary report to welcome Green Globe to the business sector and urged governments and NGO’s to use it. Suddenly, Green Globe became the biggest system in the field and the only one with a genuine worldwide scope, despite its disadvantages in the market up until now (Font, 2002; Griffin & Delacey, 2002; Ustad, 2010).

Green Hotel Certifications in Egypt: In Egypt, there are two categories of green hotel certifications—National and International. The national certification is Green Star Hotel (Green Star Hotel, 2015, 2016), whereas the international category includes four types of certifications: Green Globe (Green Globe Certification, 2015), Green Key (Green Key, 2016), Green Key Global (Green Key Global, 2016), and Travelife (Travelife, 2016). Each of these certifications has its objectives, standards, procedures, and rating levels.

2.6     Hotel Green Practices

There are nine areas that a hotel can apply significant green practices to its facilities. These include: (1) training programs for staff (Fedrizzi & Rogers, 2002; Shdeifat et al., 2006; Kim et al., 2011) and guests (Diener et al., 2008; Millar & Baloglu, 2008; Morgan, 2009; Romppanen, 2010); (2) housekeeping in terms of guest rooms (Fedrizzi & Rogers, 2002; Shdeifat et al., 2006; Hanna, 2008; Kasavana, 2008) and laundry (Getz, 2000; Fedrizzi & Rogers, 2002; Riggs, 2007; Green Hotel Association, 2015); (3) meeting rooms (Fedrizzi & Rogers, 2002; McPhee, 2006; Serlen, 2008); (4) food and beverage facilities including restaurants and kitchens (Fedrizzi & Rogers, 2002; Jones, 2002; Shdeifat et al., 2006); (5) energy productivity either for lighting or air conditioning and heating system (Fedrizzi & Rogers, 2002; ESCWA, 2003; Bohdanowicz, 2006a; Shdeifat et al., 2006; Diener et al., 2008; Zein, et al., 2008; Dalton et al., 2009); (6) water protection (ESCWA, 2003; Bohdanowicz, 2006a; Kasavana, 2008; Godwin, 2012); (7) waste management (Bohdanowicz, 2006a; Baker, 2008; Lee, 2009); (8) indoor environmental quality (Fedrizzi & Rogers, 2002; ESCWA, 2003; Diener et al., 2008); and (9) Recreation & Transportation (Fedrizzi & Rogers, 2002; Shdeifat et al., 2006; Baker, 2009).

There are numerous examples for implementing green practices in hotel chains around the World. Among them are The Intercontinental Hotel Group (IHG) (Klepsch & Schneider, 2012); Marriot Chain (Dasha, 2007; Blanke & Chiesa, 2008; Lee, 2009); Hyatt Chain (Fedrizzi & Rogers, 2002; Mandelbaum, 2008); Fairmont Hotel and Resorts (Fairmont Hotel and Resorts, 2008); Accor Chain (Blanke & Chiesa, 2008); and Ramada (Liz, 2016).

In Egypt, tourism policy incorporates green practices as a general objective (Helmy & Cooper, 2002; Helmy, 2004). However, El-Gouna town located 22 km north of Hurghada, was constructed based on being environmentally friendly. This town was awarded by the Green Globe certification, honoring its engineering and ecological responsibility. It draws in vacationers from various nations particularly Germany, UK and Belgium (Ibrahim, 2009).

The Ministry of Tourism (MoT) focuses on green practices in the hotel business sector. It created Green Sharm Initiative which is based on the 4 pillars of emissions mitigation, biodiversity, waste management best practices and water conservation. These pillars translate into 33 quantifiable projects to deliver a low carbon, environmentally friendly city by the year 2020 It is the primary example in the Middle East that will upgrade Sharm El Sheik to be a worldwide green city. It has reduced the gas outflow by 36%, decreased the hotel guestroom energy by 13%, diminished water utilization by 13% for each current lodging and 28% for every new hotel, decreased the water wastage by 75%, achieved level 3 out of 5 in the strong waste administration, achieved level 2 out of 3 in sewage treatment, and decreased the coral reef destruction by 5% every year (OEDC, 2012).

In 2013, the hotels sector in Egypt attempted to outfit 100,000 hotel rooms with new clean innovations and solar-heated water, which would take 5 years to be installed. Also in 2013, 45 hotels set up a plan to install solar-heated water system framework (Baerbel, 2014).

3    Methodology

3.1     Research Objectives and Hypotheses

The main objective of this research is to investigate the importance and the existence of green practices in hotels in Egypt, regardless of being certified or non-certified. It will depict the current status of green practices in Egyptian hotels, specifically in two main areas—water consumption and energy consumption. It aims also to determine to what extent there is awareness toward green practices and their level of implementation. Moreover, it would develop recommendations based on the outcome to help implement green practices in hotel’s facilities. The following research hypotheses will be tested:

H. There is a significant relationship between hotel’s management awareness of green practices and its commitment for implementation.

However, such hypothesis can be divided, based on certification into:

H.a: There is a significant positive relationship between hotel’s management awareness of green practices and its commitment for implementation in green certified hotels.

H.b: There is a significant negative relationship between hotel’s management awareness of green practices and its commitment for implementation in green non-certified hotels.

3.2     Research Technique and Instrument Development

To achieve the objectives, the research used a quantitative and qualitative data collection approach through reviewing literature and distributing questionnaires. Due to the large number of hotels, the research considered only 5-star hotels in Egypt, either being green certified or non-certified hotels. The reason for such consideration is that this category represents the niche market of hotels that is more capable to adopt such relatively new trend. Also, this segment is often managed by world-wide chains that usually have experience and provide money for such leading researches.

The research instrument utilized was online questionnaires. It was developed based on the reliable benchmark that was gathered from literature review as well as the five green certifications’ benchmarks in Egypt—both national (Green Star Hotel) and international (Green Globe, Green Key, Green Key Global, and Travelife). The respondents were asked to indicate the various green practices used in their hotels concerning water and energy consumption (since they represent the large amount of hotel’s consumption), by using a Likert scale. It was divided into two sections: (1) the degree of importance, which has three choices ranging from Not Important, Partially Important and Important; whereas (2) the level of implementation, which had three choices ranging from Not Implemented, Partially Implemented and Implemented. Finally, a pilot survey was conducted with some experts, including national certification manager and hoteliers, before distribution process.

3.3     Questionnaire Distribution

The population of the study included 150 five-star hotels in Egypt, according to the Egyptian Hotel Guide. In order to secure high responsiveness, trials were made to reach each hotel to determine the potential respondent either by phone and/or email. Then, a link to online questionnaire was emailed to all population elements. It was directed to the manager who is responsible for implementing the green practices in the hotel (i.e. general manager, engineering manager, executive housekeeper, and the green department manager if available, etc.). In order to get a high response rate, following-up and a reminder email was sent to those who did not answer. Out of the 150 distributed questionnaires, only 49 were valid for data analysis, with a response rate 32.6%.

4    Results presentaion and discussion

4.1     Green Certified and Non-Certified Hotels

The results revealed that there were 60 green certified five-star hotels, which represented 40% of the total population. They were certified with the following details—26 had national green certification, 25 had international green certification, and 9 hotels had both types, national and international. The other 90 five-star hotels were non-certified as green properties. As mentioned before the total responses were only 49 questionnaires, which were valid for data analysis, with a response rate 32.6%. Responses were almost distributed equally between green-certified (24 hotels, representing 49%) and non-certified (25 hotels, representing 51%) hotels. Hotels were divided into the main five tourist areas in Egypt— North West Coast, Cairo, Red Sea and Sinai, Suez Canal and Upper Egypt. Most of the responses were gathered from the Red Sea and Sinai area (18 green-certified and 16 non-certified, with sum of 34 hotels out of 49 total responses, representing 69.4%); followed by Cairo area (3 green-certified and 5 non-certified, with a total of 8 hotels, representing 16.3%); and North West Coast area (2 green-certified and 3 non-certified, with a total of 5 hotels, representing 10.2%). Such a case is not surprising, since the high proportion of population (87 hotels out of 150 five-star hotels, representing 58%) is located in the Red Sea and Sinai area. Moreover, all responding hotels were managed by chains.

 

4.2     Green Practices Assessment

This section represents an assessment of green practices in terms of the degree of importance and the implementation level in the surveyed hotels. Both green-certified and non-certified hotels will be discussed separately. Managers were asked to evaluate the degree of importance and the implementation level of green practices in their properties from their own point of view. The practices were collected from all the benchmarks of the green certifications in Egypt, from which only two main areas were covered—water and energy consumption. Mean values and standard deviation have been calculated for each practice in the investigated areas, in terms of importance and implementation scales. Mann-Whittney test was employed in order to compare analysis results for these practices, using descriptive statistics including means of scores, resulting in p-values at level (0.05), to identify if any significance relationship is recorded.

4.2.1          Green-Certified Hotels

The total number of Green-certified five-star hotels was 24 hotels representing 49% of total respondents. The following table (1) presented the comparison between the importance and implementation level of the green practices in the green-certified hotels.

Table 1: Comparison between the Importance and Implementation of Green Practices

for Green-Certified Hotels

Green Practices

Importance Degree

Implementation Level

P-Value

M

SD

M

SD

1.     Water Consumption

 

W1.           

Monitoring the water consumption in each department at least once a month.

3.00

0.00

2.95

0.22

0.078

W2.           

Installing water-saving devices in the appropriate places (flow regulators, water flow sensors, self-closing taps, etc.).

2.83

0.38

2.61

0.66

0.035*

W3.           

Installing low flow showerheads that do not exceed 9 liters per minute.

2.88

0.33

2.90

0.30

0.364

W4.           

Following the instructions for saving water and energy during operation of dishwashers (must be displayed near the machine).

2.88

0.33

2.71

0.63

0.067

W5.           

Maintaining regularly plumbing fixtures and piping in order to avoid water losses.

2.98

0.15

2.83

0.38

0.013 *

W6.           

Reusing the water used in the kitchen to wash fruits and vegetables for watering the garden.

2.51

0.70

1.90

0.85

0.000*

W7.           

Watering grass and plants early in the morning and late at night to limit evaporation.

3.00

0.000

2.95

0.22

0.078

W8.           

Cleaning the swimming pool in a way that will reduce the water wastage such as manual and mechanical processes, filtration maintenance etc.

2.78

0.41

2.29

0.71

0.000 *

W9.           

Using less chemical detergents like phosphate-free or whitener-free in the laundry.

2.76

0.58

2.56

0.63

0.075

W10.         

Giving guests a choice on having linens exchanged.

2.93

0.34

2.85

0.47

0.215

 

Overall Score

2.85

0.21

2.85

0.47

0.211

2.     Energy Consumption

 

E1.             

Monitoring the energy use at least once a month for each department.

3.00

0.00

2.95

0.22

0.078

E2.             

Using any renewable energy system like solar system and wind turbines.

2.90

0.43

1.88

0.80

0.000*

E3.             

Using energy efficient light instead of Fluorescent light and depending on natural light more than artificial lights.

2.98

0.15

2.83

0.38

0.013*

E4.             

Installing energy-efficient equipment like water heaters, air conditioners, dishwashers etc.

2.85

0.35

2.54

0.55

0.001*

E5.             

Switching off equipment when not in use.

2.93

0.26

2.83

0.49

0.134 *

E6.             

Depending on natural light more than artificial lights.

2.85

0.35

2.66

0.61

0.042*

E7.             

Having a thermostat system in the guest rooms to control maximize and minimize temperatures

2.93

0.26

2.71

0.55

0.013*

E8.             

Changing the air conditioning filters equipment regularly.

2.98

0.15

2.80

0.40

0.007 *

E9.             

The air conditioning automatically switches off when windows are open.

2.76

0.53

1.37

0.72

0.000 *

E10.          

Keeping the water temperature at 24°C to save the energy.

2.80

0.45

2.34

0.75

0.001*

 

Overall Score

2.95

0.45

2.49

0.55

0.003*

M=Mean, SD= Standard deviation, p-value= Significant difference at level 0.05.

Firstly, concerning the water consumption green practices, there was no significant difference between the scores of importance degree and implementation level (p-value= 0.211). Therefore, such a result revealed that most of the practices that were considered important, from managers’ points of view, were implemented in their hotels. However, there were some practices that showed significant gaps, such as W6 and W8 (p-value= 0.000).

Regarding the importance of those practices, the highest degrees were recorded to practices W1 and W7, which showed also the highest level of implementation with means 3.00 and 2.95 respectively. On the other hand, the least important practice was also the least implemented one, i.e. W6 practice with means 2.51 and 1.90 respectively.

Secondly, concerning the energy consumption green practices, there was a significant difference between the importance and the implementation level (p-value= 0.003). Therefore, such result exposed that most of the practices that were considered important, from managers’ points of view, had not been implemented in their hotels. The highest two gaps were dedicated to practices E2 and E9 (p-value= 0.000). The most important and implemented practice was E1 (with Means 3.00 and 2.95 respectively). Conversely, the least important and implemented practice from was E9 (with Means 2.76 and 1.37 respectively).

According to the mentioned results, the research hypothesis related to green-certified hotels; H.a: There is a significant positive relationship between hotel’s management awareness of green practices and its commitment for implementation in green certified hotels; could be accepted regarding water consumption green practices. On the other hand, it could be rejected regarding energy consumption green practices.

4.2.2          Green Non-Certified Hotels

Twenty five green non-certified hotels were studied, representing 51% of total respondents. The following table (2) presented the comparison between the importance and implementation level of the green practices in the non-certified hotels. Firstly, concerning the water consumption green practices, there was a significant difference between the scores of water consumption importance and implementation level (p-value = 0.000). Most of the practices were important from the manager perspective, but they did not implement them. Practices W4, W8, W9 and W10 were the highest in gaps (p-value = 0.000).

Regarding the importance of those practices, the highest degrees were recorded to practices W5 (M= 2.95) and W4 (M= 2.93). However, the least important practices were W6 (M= 2.48) and W3 (M= 2.67). Regarding the implementation level of those practices, the highest implemented practice was W1 (M= 2.79), followed by practice W5 (M= 2.74). Conversely, the least implemented practice was W6 (M= 2.07).

Secondly, concerning the energy consumption green practices, there was also a significant difference between the importance and the implementation (p-value= 0.021). Some practices recorded a significant gap like E2, E4, E5, E6 and E9 (p-value= 0.000). Although, managers thought they were very important practices, they did not implement them in their hotels.

Moreover, it was noted that all practices have been evaluated as highly important with a mean that scored 2.85, as shown in Table 2. Three of most important practices were E4, E5 and E6 (M= 2.95), while the least important practices were E10 (M= 2.57) and E8 (M= 2.88). Regarding the implementation level, the most implemented practice was E1 (M= 2.88), followed by practice E7 (M= 2.79); whereas the least implemented practice was E2 (M= 2.12).

 

Table 2: Comparison between the Importance and Implementation of Green Practices

for Non-Certified Hotels

Green Practices

Importance Degree

Implementation Level

P-Value

M

SD

M

SD

1.     Water Consumption

 

W1.           

Monitoring the water consumption in each department at least once a month.

2.86

0.41

2.79

0.41

0.217

W2.           

Installing water-saving devices in the appropriate places (flow regulators, water flow sensors, self-closing taps, etc.).

2.76

0.43

2.57

0.54

0.040*

W3.           

Installing low flow showerheads that do not exceed 9 liters per minute.

2.67

0.52

2.50

0.79

0.132

W4.           

Following the instructions for saving water and energy during operation of dishwashers (must be displayed near the machine).

2.93

0.26

2.52

0.59

0.000*

W5.           

Maintaining regularly plumbing fixtures and piping in order to avoid water losses.

2.95

0.21

2.74

0.49

0.006*

W6.           

Reusing the water used in the kitchen to wash fruits and vegetables for watering the garden.

2.48

0.79

2.07

0.94

0.019*

W7.           

Watering grass and plants early in the morning and late at night to limit evaporation.

2.83

0.43

2.64

0.65

0.061

W8.           

Cleaning the swimming pool in a way that will reduce the water wastage such as manual and mechanical processes, filtration maintenance etc.

2.81

0.50

2.14

0.83

0.000*

W9.           

Using less chemical detergents like phosphate-free or whitener-free in the laundry.

2.79

0.46

2.19

0.85

0.000*

W10.         

Giving guests a choice on having linens exchanged.

2.90

0.29

2.45

0.59

0.000*

 

Overall Score

2.80

0.20

2.50

0.58

0.000*

2.     Energy Consumption

 

E1.             

Monitoring the energy use at least once a month for each department.

2.93

0.26

2.88

0.32

0.232

E2.             

Using any renewable energy system like solar system and wind turbines.

2.93

0.34

2.12

0.88

0.000*

E3.             

Using energy efficient light instead of Fluorescent light and depending on natural light more than artificial lights.

2.90

0.29

2.67

0.52

0.006*

E4.             

Installing energy-efficient equipment like water heaters, air conditioners, dishwashers etc.

2.95

0.21

2.40

0.76

0.000*

E5.             

Switching off equipment when not in use.

2.95

0.21

2.62

0.53

0.000*

E6.             

Depending on natural light more than artificial lights.

2.95

0.21

2.64

0.53

0.000*

E7.             

Having a thermostat system in the guest rooms to control maximize and minimize temperatures

2.93

0.26

2.79

0.46

0.044*

E8.             

Changing the air conditioning filters equipment regularly.

2.88

0.32

2.74

0.54

0.074

E9.             

The air conditioning automatically switches off when windows are open.

2.93

0.26

2.19

0.88

0.000*

E10.          

Keeping the water temperature at 24°C to save the energy.

2.57

0.49

2.24

0.87

0.018*

 

Overall Score

2.85

0.46

2.53

0.63

0.021*

M=Mean, SD= Standard deviation, p-value= Significant difference at level 0.05.

According to the mentioned results, the research hypothesis related to non-certified hotels; H.b: There is a significant negative relationship between hotel’s management awareness of green practices and its commitment for implementation in green non-certified hotels; could be accepted regarding green practices for either water or energy consumption.

5    Limitations and Future research

Due to the large number of hotels, the research considered only 5-star hotels in Egypt, either being green certified or non-certified hotels. Nevertheless, other hotel categories, in Egypt, should be surveyed to determine whether they apply green practices to their facilities. Exploring the barriers for going green, as well as the gap and opportunities to have green hotel certifications might be investigated. Other areas of applying green practices that might be used in hotels could be studied, such as waste management, pollution elimination, green purchasing, and training for both employees and guests. The guests’ behaviour toward green practices as well as their concern and positive attitude toward the environment conservation might be recommended for future research.  Another significant dimension that should be further investigated in future research is the role of Governmental Authorities and NGOs in encouraging hotels to adopt green practices.

6    Implications and Conclusions

The main objective of the research is to investigate the importance and the existence of green practices in hotels in Egypt. Such objective is fulfilled through the field study, specifically in the two main areas of water consumption and energy consumption. Also, the research explored the current status of Egyptian 5-star hotels, in terms of green certification. It depicted whether they are being green certified or non-certified, based on theoretical review and practical study. There were 60 green certified five-star hotels, which represented 40% of total population. They were certified with the following details—26 had national green certification, 25 had international green certification, and 9 hotels had both types of certifications. The other 90 five-star hotels had not any green certifications.

Furthermore, hotels were divided into the main five tourist areas in Egypt— North West Coast, Cairo, Red Sea and Sinai, Suez Canal and Upper Egypt. Most of the responses were gathered from the Red Sea and Sinai area, followed by Cairo area and North West Coast area. Such a case is not surprising, since the high proportion of population is located in Red Sea and Sinai area. Moreover, all responding hotels were managed by chains.

The research can conclude that green certified and non-certified managers have a relatively high awareness regarding green practices. However, the implementation level was limited in the non-certified hotels than the green-certified ones.

Results of the research indicated that there is significant difference between importance and implementation of green practices in Egyptian Hotels; with variance in each group elements. The exception was for those practices that are related to water conservation in green-certified 5-star hotels; since most of the practices that were considered important, from managers’ points of view, were implemented in their hotels. Therefore, extensive concern should be maintained toward increasing awareness and implementation. Green-certified and non-certified hotels should improve their water and energy green practices to optimize the use of resources. Moreover, areas for future research are recommended.

 

 

References

Abu Taleb, M. (2005), A Study on Benefits of Applying Waste Recycling Programs in the Hotel Industry, PhD Thesis, Helwan University, Egypt.

Alexander, S. (2002), Green hotels: Opportunities and Resources for success, Zero Waste Alliance [online]. Available from: http://www.zerowaste.org/publications/GREEN_HO.PDF [Accessed 4 Oct. 2015].

Anglada, L. M. (2000), ‘Small and medium-sized enterprises’ perceptions of the environment: a study from Spain’. In R. Hillary (Ed.), Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and the Environment Business Imperatives (pp. 61-74), Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.

Anguera, N. & Ayuso, S. (2000), ‘Implementation of EMS’s in Seasonal Hotels: Assuring Sustainability’. In: R. Hillary (Ed.), ISO 14000 Case Studies and Practical Experiences (pp. 162-171), Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.

Ashkin, J. (2007), ‘Going green to slow: Global warming is everyone’s business’, Executive Housekeeping Today, June, pp.19-25.

Baerbel, E. (2014), Egypt: Green Star Hotels “Download” the Sun [online]. Available from: http://www.solarthermalworld.org/content/egypt-green-star-hotels-download-sun [Accessed 3 Feb. 2016].

Baker, C. (2008), ‘A welcome sign: hotels adopt reuse and recycling’, Waste Management World website [online]. http://www.waste-management-world.com/articles/article_display.cfm? ARTICLE_ID=271254&p=123 [Accessed 2 Dec. 2015].

Bentley, R. (2007), ‘What price going green?’, Caterer & Hotelkeeper, 197(4495), pp. 50-52.

Bergin, M. (2010), ‘Manage your Environmental Costs’, Hotel & Catering Review, pp. 33-35.

Bien, A. (2006), Center for Ecotourism and Sustainable Development. Ecotourism Handbook I: A Simple User's Guide to Certification for Sustainable Tourism and Ecotourism [online]. (3rd edition). Available from: http://www.responsibletravel.org/resources/documents/ reports/Ecotourism_Handbook_I.pdf [Accessed 8 Oct. 2015]

Blanke, J. & Chiesa, T. (2008), The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2008: Balancing Economic Development and Environmental Sustainability, Geneva: World Economic Forum.

Bohdanowicz, P. & Martinac, I. (2003), ‘Attitudes towards sustainability in chain hotels Results of a European survey’, International conference on smart and sustainable built environment, 19(21), pp.1-10.

Bohdanowicz, P. (2005), ‘European Hoteliers’ Environmental Attitudes: Greening the Business’, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 46(2), pp.188-204.

Bohdanowicz, P. (2006a), ‘Environmental Awareness and Initiatives in the Swedish and Polish Hotel Industries’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 25(4), pp. 662-682.

Bohdanowicz, P. (2006b), Responsible resource management in hotels attitudes, indicators, tools and strategies, PhD Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology.

Bohdanowicz, P.; Simanic, B.; & Martinac, I. (2005), ‘Sustainable Hotels-Environmental Reporting According to Green Globe 21, Green Globes Canada / GEM UK, IHEI Benchmark Hotel and Hilton Environmental Reporting’, Proceedings of Sustainable Building (SB05) Conference, September 27-29, 2005, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 1642-1649.

Brown, M. (1996), ‘Environmental Policy in the Hotel Sector: “Green” Strategy or Stratagem’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 8(3), pp. 18-23.

Budeanu, A. (2007), ‘Sustainable tourist behavior a discussion of opportunities for change’, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31(5), pp. 499-508.

Cespedes Lorente, J.; Burgos Jimenez, J. & Alvarez-Gil, M.J. (2003), ‘Stakeholders’ Environmental Influence: An Empirical Analysis in the Spanish Hotel Industry’, Scandinavian Journal of Management, Vol. 19, pp. 333-358.

Chan, E. & Hawkins, R. (2010), ‘Attitude toward EMSs in an international Hotel: An Exploratory Case Study’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 29, pp.641-651.

Chan, E. (2008), ‘Barriers to EMS in the Hotel Industry’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 27, pp.187-196.

China Luxury Travel Network (2010), Green Hotel Guideline, China: Jian Guo Men Wai Diplomatic Compound.

Claver-Cortes, E.; Molina-Azorin, J.F.; Pereira- Moliner, J. & Lopez-Gamero, M. D. (2007), ‘Environmental Strategies and Their Impact on Hotel Performance’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(6), pp. 663-679.

Dalton, G. J.; Lockington, D. A. & Baldock, T. E. (2009), ‘Case study feasibility analysis of renewable energy supply options for small to medium-sized tourist accommodations’, Renewable Energy, 34(4), pp.1134–1144.

Dascalaki, E. & Balaras, C. (2004), ‘Xenios- a methodology for assessing refurbishment scenarios and the potential of application of RES and RUE in hotels’, Energy and Buildings, Vol.36, pp.1091-1105.

Dasha, R. (2007), Marriott helps ‘Clean up the world’ [Online]. Washington DC: Marriott Available from: http://www.marriott.com/news/detail.mi?marrArticle=160342 [Accessed 15 Oct. 2015].

Diener, M.; Parekh, A. & Pitera, J. (2008), High Performance Hospitality. Michigan: Hoffman.

Dodds, R. & Butler, R. (2005), Barriers to the Implementation of Sustainable Tourism Policy in Destinations, PhD Thesis, University of Surrey.

Doody, H. (2008), What Are The Barriers To Implementing Environmental Practices In The Irish Hospitality Industry? [online]. Shannon College of Hotel Management. Available from: http://www.shannoncollege.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/THRIC-2010-Full-Paper-H.-Doody.pdf [Accessed 20 Dec. 2015].

Elvis, P. (2013), COLLEGE STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS GREEN HOTEL PRACTICE, Master Thesis, Rosen College.

Environmental Protection Agency, EPA. (1998), Environmental Labelling Issues, Policies, and Practices Worldwide. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-09/documents/wwlabel3.pdf [Accessed 8 Nov. 2015].

ESCWA (2003), Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia: A Guide to Efficient Energy Management in the Tourism Sector. United Nations: New York.

Essex, S.; Kent, M. & Newnham, R. (2004), ‘Tourism development in Mallorca: Is water supply a constraint?’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 12(1), pp. 4-28.

Esty, D.C. & Simmons, P.J. (2011), The Green to Gold Business Playbook: How to Implement Sustainability Practices for Bottom- Line Results in Every Business Function. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. 

Esty, D.C. & Winston, A.S. (2009), Green to gold: how smart companies use environmental strategies to innovate, create value, and build competitive advantage. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.

Fairmont Hotel and Resorts (2008), The Green Partnership Guide: A Practical Guide to Greening your Hotel, Toronto: Fairmont Hotel and Resorts.

Fedrizzi, R. & Rogers, J. (2002), Energy Efficiency Opportunities: the Lodging Industry [online]. Available from: http://www.cool-companies.org/images/hotelsfinaljune.pdf [Accessed 23 Nov. 2015].

Font, X. (2002), ‘Environmental certification in tourism and hospitality: progress, process and prospects’, Tourism Management, Vol. 23, pp.197–205.

Friend, G. (2009), The Truth about Green Business. (1st edition), New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Geerts, W. (2014), ‘Environmental certification schemes: Hotel managers’ views and perceptions’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 39, pp.87-96.

Getz, D. (2000), ‘Developing a research agenda for the event management field’. In J. Allen; R. Harris; L. Jago & A. J. Veal (Eds.), Events Beyond 2000: Setting the Agenda (pp. 10-21), Proceedings of Conference on Event Evaluation, Research and Education, Sydney: University of Technology.

Godwin, C. O. (2012), ‘Perception of Green Hotels in the 21st Century’, Journal of Tourism Insights, 3(3), pp.1-9.

Gonzalez, C. (2004), Motivation and barriers of implementing an EMS in Spanish Organization, Master Thesis, University of East Anglia.

Gonzalez-Benito, J. & Gonzalez-Benito, O. (2005), ‘An Analysis of the Relationship between Environmental Motivations and ISO 14001’, Certification, Vol.16, pp. 133-148

Gössling, S. (2002), ‘Global Environmental Consequences of Tourism’, Global Environmental Change, 12(4), pp. 283–302.

Graci, S. & Dodds, R. (2008) ‘Why Go Green? The Business Case for Environmental Commitment in the Canadian Hotel Industry’, Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 250-270.

Graci, S. (2002), The Greening of Accommodation: A Study of Voluntary Environmental Initiatives in the Hotel Industry, Toronto: University of Toronto.

Graci, S. (2009), Can Hotels Accommodate Green? Examining What Influences Environmental Commitment in the Hotel Industry, Frankfurt: VDM Verlag.

Green Globe Certification (2015), The leading 5-star Deluxe Steigenberger Al Dau Beach Hotel is the first hotel at the West coast of the Red Sea having received the Green Globe Certificate [Online]. Available from: http://www.steigenbergeraldaubeach.com/green-globe-certificate [Accessed 7 Dec. 2015].

Green Hotel Association (2006), Quick Start to Hotel Conservation [Online]. Available from: http://www.greenhotels.com/pressrel.php#a2  [Accessed 8 Dec. 2015].

Green Hotel Association (2015), Hotels can save over $6.50 A Day per Occupied Guestroom and Help Protect Our Environment [Online]. Available from: http://www.greenhotels.com/pressrel.php#a2  [Accessed 8 Dec. 2015].

Green Key (2016), AN ECO-LABEL FOR LEISURE ORGANISATIONS [online]. Available from:  http://www.green-key.org/menu/criteria/hotels/green-key-hotel-application-form-2012-2015-hotels.pdf [Accessed 29 May 2016].

Green Key Global (2016), Green Key Eco-Rating Program [online]. Available from:  http://greenkeyglobal.com/programs/eco-rating-program/ [Accessed 29 May 2016].

Green Star Hotel (2015), ‘Green Star Hotel Achieves GSTC Recognition’, Travel Forever Global Sustainable Tourism Council [Online]. Available from: http://www.gstcouncil.org/about/news/1000-green-star-hotel-achieves-gstc-recognition.html [Accessed 1 Feb. 2016].

Green Star Hotel (2016), Towards Sustainable Tourism in Egypt [online]. Available from: http://www.greenstarhotel.org/?page_id=8 [Accessed 1 Feb. 2016].

Griffin, T. & Delacey, T. (2002), Green Globe: Sustainability accreditation for tourism, Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

Halbe, A. (2013), Green energy initiatives in the hotel industry: factors influencing adoption decisions, Master Thesis, University of Waterloo.

Hall, M. & Lew, A. (2009), Understanding and Managing Tourism Impacts: an Integrated Approach. London: Routledge.

Han, H.; Hsu, L. T.; Lee, J. S. & Sheu, C. (2011), ‘Are lodging customers ready to go green? An examination of attitudes, demographics, and eco-friendly intentions’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(2), pp.345-355.

Han, H.; Hsu, L.T. & Sheu, C. (2010), ‘Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to green hotel choice: Testing the effect of environmental friendly activities’, Tourism Management, 31(3), pp. 325-334.

Hanna, E. (2008), ‘Greening the guestroom’, Hotel & Motel Management, 22(9), p.28.

Hatane, M.; Yosari, A. & Hendautomo, F.  (2012), ‘Evaluation of the Successfulness of a Green Program Through Customer Perceived Quality, Brand Image, and Customer satisfaction:  A Case Study at Surabaya Plaza Hotel’, Jurnal Manajemen Dan Kewiraushaan, 14(1), pp. 55−62.

Helmy, E. & C. Cooper (2002), ‘An assessment of sustainable tourism planning for the archaeological heritage: the case of Egypt’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, pp. 514-535.

Helmy, E. (2004), ‘Towards integration of sustainability into tourism planning in developing countries: Egypt as a case study’, Current Issues in Tourism, pp. 478-501.

Holden, A. (2008), Environment and Tourism (2nd edition), London : Routledge.

Honey, M. (2008), Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: Who owns paradise? (2nd edition), Washington: Island Press.

Houdre, H. (2008), ‘Sustainable Development in the Hotel Industry’, Cornell Industry Perspectives, No. 2, pp. 5-20.

Ibrahim, Z, (2009), Tourism Development and the Environment on the Egyptian Red Sea Coast, Master Thesis, the University of Waterloo, Canada.

Jones, P. (2002), ‘The Orchid Hotel’, Tourism Hospitality Research, 3(3), pp. 277-280.

Kasali, R. (2009), ‘Potensi Green Product Bergantung Stimulus’, Majalah Swa Sembada, 25(10), pp.14 −56.

Kasavana, M. (2008), ‘Green hospitality, Hospitality Upgrade’, Hospitality & Tourism Complete database. Available from: http://www.hospitalityupgrade.com/_files/file_articles/husum08_kasavana_greenhospitality.pdf [Accessed 15 Nov. 2015].

Kasim, A. (2007), ‘Towards a Wider Adoption of Environmental Responsibility in the Hotel Sector’, International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 8(2), pp. 25-49.

Katz, A. (2008), ‘Going green is possible through a variety of possibilities’, Hospitality Construction, pp. 62-64.

Kim, H.; Chang, H.; Lee, J. & Huh, C. (2011), Exploring gender differences on generation y’s attitudes towards green practices in a hotel [online]. UMASS: University of Massachusetts. Available from: http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi? article=1122&context=gradconf_hospitality [Accessed 6 Aug. 2015].

Kirk, D. (1995), ‘Environmental Management in hotels’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 7(6), pp. 3-8.

Kirk, D. (1996), Environmental Management for Hotels: A Student’s Handbook. Oxford: Butterworth- Heinemann.

Klepsch, S. & Schneider, J. (2012), Sustainable Hotel Practices and its Influence on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Comparison between Vienna and Hong Kong. Module Vienna Institute.

Lee, J.S.; Hsu, L.T.; Han, H. & Kim, Y. (2010) ‘Understanding How consumers view green hotels: how a hotel's green image can influence behavioral intentions’, Journal Of Sustainable Tourism, Vol. 18, No. 7, pp. 901-914.

Lee, K. (2009), ‘Gender Differences in Hong Kong Adolescent Consumers’ Green Purchasing Behavior’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26(2), pp.87-96.

Leslie, D. & Muir, F. (1996), Local Agenda 21: Local authorities and tourism, a United Kingdom perspective. A report prepared for tourism concern, Glasgow: Glasgow Caledonian University.

Liz, C. (2016), ‘10 of the world’s best eco-friendly luxury hotels’ [Online]. Available from: http://standard.co.uk/lifestyle/travel/10-of-the-world-s-best-ecofriendly-luxury-hotels-a3201281.html [Accessed 25 Jan. 2017].

Manaktola, K. & Jauhari, V. (2007), ‘Exploring Consumer Attitude and Behavior towards Green Practices in the Lodging Industry in India’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 19(5), pp. 364-377.

Mandelbaum, R. (2008), ‘PKF Industry Analysis: 2008 Trends in the Hotel Industry Report: Unit-Level Profits Grew 7.2 Percent in 2007’, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 230-233.

McPhee, M. (2006), ‘Sustainable resource management in the hospitality industry’, BioCycle, 47(10), p.40.

Mensah, I. (2006), ‘Environmental management practices among hotels in the greater Accra region’, Hospitality Management, Vol.25, pp.414-431.

Micioni, C. (2009), Going green in the hospitality industry, Master Thesis, William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration.

Middleton, V. & Hawkins, R. (1998), Sustainable Tourism: A Marketing Perspective. New York: Longman.

Millar, M. & Baloglu, S. (2008), ‘Hotel Guests Preferences for Green Hotel Attribute’, Paper presented at the 26th EuroCHRIE, Dubai.

Morgan, E. (2009), Picture Yourself Going Green: Step-by-Step Instruction for Living a Budget-Conscious, Earth-Friendly Lifestyle in Eight Weeks or Less, Boston: Course Technology.

Morrow, D. & Rondinelli, D. (2002), ‘Adopting Corporate EMSs: Motivations and Results of ISO 14001 and EMAS Certification’, European Management Journal, 20(2), pp. 159-171.

Mowforth, M. & Munt, I. (2009), Tourism and Sustainability: Development, Globalization and New Tourism in the Third World. (3rd edition), Abingdon: Routledge.

OECD - Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2012), OECD Tourism Papers Green Innovation in Tourism Services, Vienna: OECD Publishing.

Pizam, A. (2009), ‘Green Hotels: A fad, ploy or fact of life’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 28, p.1.

Rachel, D. (2007), ‘Sustainable Tourism and Policy Implementation: Lessons from the Case of Calvia´-Spain’, Current Issues in Tourism, 10(4), pp. 296-322.

Radwan, H.; Jones, E. & Minoli, D. (2010), ‘Managing Solid Waste in Small Hotels’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(2), pp. 175-190.

Riggs, L. (2007), ‘Greening your laundry’, Executive Housekeeping Today, 29(12), p.13.

Roarty, M. (1997), ‘Greening business in a market economy’, European Business Review, 97(5), pp. 244-254.

Romppanen, J. (2010), Increasing Environmental Awareness of Hotel Customers, Case: A Turkish Eco Hotel, Thesis, Saimaa University of Applied Sciences.

Saha, M. & Darnton, G. (2005), ‘Green Companies or Green Companies: Are Companies Really Green, or Are They Pretending to be?’, Business and society Review, 110(2), pp.117-157.

Salen, N. (1995), ‘Water Rights’, Tourism in Focus, Vol. 17, pp. 4-5.

Serlen, B. (2008), ‘Consumer appeal of green means more of it soon’, Hotel Business, Vol.17, p.18.

Shdeifat, O.; Mohsen, M.; Mustafa, M.; Al-Ali, Y. & Al-mhesein, B. (2006), ‘Some Proposals Suggested for Achieving Sustainability of Resources and Energy in the Hotels of Jordan’, The Hashemite University, No.1, pp.1-57.

Siegenthaler, J. P. (2010), ‘How Green Are Your Customers?’ Supply House Times, pp. 41-42.

Stark, D. (2009), The Sense of Dissonance: Accounts of Worth in Economic Life. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Toth, R. (2000), ‘Elements of success and failure in certification/accreditation’, Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Certification Workshop, New York: Mohonk Mountain House.

Travelife Sustainability in Tourism (2016), Certification [online]. http://travelife.info/index_new.php? menu=certification&lang=en [Accessed 29 May 2016].

Tzschentke, N.; Kirk, D. & Luynch,A. (2008), ‘Going Green :Decisional Factors in Small Hospitality Operators’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 27, pp. 126-133.

United Nations Environment Programme and World Tourism Organization (2012), Tourism in the Green Economy – Background Report, UNWTO, Madrid.

University of Nebraska (2010), Greening the Hospitality Industry, Nebraska: Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, The Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska.

Ustad, B. (2010), The Adoption And Implementation Of Environmental Management System In New Zealand Hotels: The Managers Perspective, Master Thesis, Auckland University of Technology.

Wood, M. (2002), Ecotourism: Principles, Practices & Policies for Sustainability. (1st edition), Paris: United Nations Publications.

Zein, K.; Wazner, M. & Meylan, G. (2008), Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry [online]. Sustainable Business Associates (SBA). Available from: http://sba-int.ch/spec/sba/download/ BGH/SBABGEHOTELLERIEENG2008.pdf [Accessed 10 Oct. 2015].

Zhang, J.; Joglekar, N. & Verma, R. (2012), ‘Pushing the Frontier of Sustainable Service Operations: Evidence from the U.S. Hospitality Industry’, Journal of Service Management, 23(3).

Zsolnai, L. (2002), ‘Green business or community economy?’, International Journal of Social Economics, 29(8), pp. 652–662.