Manola Maria,   University of West Attica

Tsatalbassoglou Anna Irene, University of West Attica

Koltsikoglou Georgios,   University of West Attica



Literary tourism, as part of the culture has prospects for development in the tourism market. In the present work we will explore the possibility of utilizing the great Cretan writer as one of the axes of tourist development in Heraklion, Crete. The research highlights important points on which support moves in this direction could be based.

Keywords: literary tourism, tour, Nikos Kazantzakis, Heraklion, technology


  1. Literary Tourism

Tourism is one of the major and fastest growing economic sectors in Greece and in fact, as Varvaresos (2000) argues, it is the largest national industry. Literature can be a tool of influence for a large number of people. A great suggestion for anyone who loves books and travel is their combination. Launching a visit to places, lodges, bookstores where writers or protagonists of the novels lived is an idea that is not new, in fact there are travel agencies[1] that offer literary tours to their customers. Through the book the author acquires the 'power' to convey his impressions of a place and indirectly or even directly influence his readers, especially if the plot of a novel unfolds in an existing city or country then the reader's interest in it will be aroused the place and will think or even plan a visit there.

According to Herbert (1996) the basic characteristics that a literary destination should have are:

  1. Uniqueness. The destination, either the monument or the house of an author should be kept in good condition and the architecture should refer to the corresponding description of the work. It would also be good if the author's personal belongings are properly preserved so that the visitor can have a complete picture of the personality and daily life of either the author Feelings - thoughts that the tourists felt during their visit, if they thought or the protagonists of the work.
  2. about the author's work or about a specific era that he deals with.
  3. Relevance to the work, the percentage to which the images presented in the book correspond to the real landscape. Many times this criterion can work in reverse, e.g. the location is a motivation for the reader to read the book.

From the above it appears that the authenticity of a site is a key point for the successful promotion of the literary destination as tourists, want a complete presentation in order to experience the reality of the place exactly as they imagined although according to Fawcett and McCormack, (2001) the authenticity of such a destination is subjective since it relies heavily on imagination with purely personal criteria. A typical case of combining the image of a site through a literary book according to Manola (2019) is the tourist explosion that occurred in Spinalonga after the publication of the book "The Island" by Hislop which had a huge impact and attracted many more tourists than a simple advertising for a tourist destination.


  1.  Europeans' preferences regarding Cultural Tourism

In the data that appear in the Portfolio of tourist products of the Region of Crete for the year 2014,


the percentage of Europeans[2] who chose cultural tourism in 2014 stood at 27%. Cultural tourism (including Religious tourism) was the main reason for the 2014 holidays for 42% of Belgians, while the percentage of residents is also high (38%), Estonia (37%), Luxembourg (36%), the Netherlands ( 35%) and Malta (34%) who declared culture as the main reason for their holidays in 2014. The corresponding percentage for Greek travelers is 12%, while the percentages of the population of Slovenia are correspondingly low (13% ), Bulgaria (14%) and Moldova (14%).


Of the tourists who visit Greece for cultural & religious tourism, about 12.0% visit Crete[3].

These, as shown in the above table of INSETE[4], the Scandinavians are ranked first (36% who visit our country for cultural & religious tourism, go to Crete) followed by the Germans (24.0%).

In the whole country, the highest percentages are shown by the British with 8.2%, the French with 7.1% and the Germans with 6.5%.

From the above data it appears that cultural tourism, of which literary is a part, has great potential for development in a country like Hellas with such a huge wealth in this field.

Specifically, for Crete, one of the most important levers for the development of literary tourism can be Nikos Kazantzakis.


  1. Nikos Kazantzakis as a tourist attraction
  2. 1 Short biography of him

Nikos Kazantzakis was a writer, journalist, politician, poet and philosopher and is considered one of the most important contemporary Greek writers and as the most translated in the world. According to his biographical data, as mentioned by Kostelenos (1997a:30-41) he was born in 1883 in Heraklion, Crete, which at that time was still part of the Ottoman Empire. He was one of the most respected by the people and one of the most recognized writers abroad. During the Cretan uprising of 1897, Nikos Kazantzakis was sent for security reasons to Naxos, where he then attended the French School of the Holy Cross where he studied French and Italian. He later wrote and completed his studies with honors at the Law School of the University of Athens. He published his first work, the essay "The Sickness of the Century" in the magazine "Pinakotheki" and his first novel, entitled "Serpent and Lily" under the nickname Karma Nirvami and his subsequent works under nickname such as the initial of his little name "N" or "Petros Psiloritis".

He first worked as a journalist and at the same time wrote his doctorate in purist Greek while he was an ardent supporter of the municipality, which is proven by the fact that he was a founding member of the "Educational Club". He started his long career earning a living from translations. In 1914 he became friendly with Angelos Sikelianos and they started touring in Greece to discover together as he says "the consciousness of our land and race" (Kostelenos, 1977: 33). In 1917 he met George Zorbas and at the end of the same year he left for Zurich and from there for the tour of Europe. In 1919 he was appointed by Venizelos to the newly established Ministry of Health to oversee the installation of 150,000 but resigned in 1920. Since then he began to write works such as "Odysseus", the new form of "Buddha" influenced by socialist-democratic views, "Asceticism" with the idea of ​​freedom as mentioned by Grammatas (1983) constitutes the core of all his literary creation and finally the "Odyssey" and while traveling, he makes responses and works on his travel impressions. In the summer of 1932 he will start translating "Divine Comedy", later "Rock Garden", "Captain Michael" while at the same time translating Pirandello's "Tonight we improvise", it was his contact with the Italian playwright that influenced him during his writing "Othello returns" (Manola and Tsatalbasoglou, 2020). In 1936, according to Grammatas (1992), by order of the National Theater, Kazantzakis translated "Tonight we improvise" by the Italian playwright. The play of theatricality with reality, which characterizes the work of Pirandello, gives Kazantzakis the opportunity to present his own thoughts and views that almost obsessively occupy the Cretan thinker. Human activity and its limits, its freedom and confinement by necessity, God or destiny that determine human life, constitute the basic reflection erased by the heroes of the play. He was a prolific writer, some of his most famous novels are: "Captain Michael" he wrote in 1953, "The Last Temptation" (1954) and "Report to Greco", an autobiographical novel, published in 1961. According to Politis (1998) "perhaps there was not a place, of the many he visited, that did not record him in his travel descriptions, which is certainly one of the best creations of Kazantzakis". However, Kazantzakis himself considered as his masterpiece and his intellectual autobiography[5] his "Odyssey" in poetic form as they have called it, is his most important work.

According to Kyfonidou (2015), Kazantzakis was intensely active in politics and although he twice took a government position[6], his involvement in political life offered him mainly disappointments. In 1929, his friendly relations with the Soviet regime and the organization of a pro-Soviet event resulted in his first prosecution. This is, in essence, the beginning of a series of strong reactions towards him and his work. Later, the Church takes the baton: with the spearhead of his works Asceticism, Captain Michael and The Last Temptation, he was initially accused of atheism in 1954, the Vatican included The Last Temptation in the list of banned books for 195-15 years 1954. There was a lot of pressure but it did not officially affect him. However, the Hierarchy of the Greek Church cursed him by giving the "paternal admonition" to her flock to avoid reading his books.

According to Arkoudeas (2015), these reactions with all the legitimate and unfair means probably cost him the election to the Academy of Athens with a difference of only two votes, or the Nobel Prize for Literature for which he was nominated nine times.

Nikos Kazantzakis died on October 26, 1957, at the age of 74 in Freiburg (in Breisgau), Germany. His body was placed in a popular pilgrimage and his funeral was transformed to a memorial because of the number of people that participated at the Metropolitan Church of Agios Minas, in the presence of the Archbishop of Crete Eugenios. According to Arkoudeas (2015: 520) his monument is made of five large stones carried from an equal number of parts of Crete, a wooden cross was erected on it and on the plaque of the monument was engraved, as he had ordered, the saying of the philosopher Demonaktas who lived in Athens in the 2nd century and corresponds to the beliefs of Kazantzakis the now famous "I do not hope for anything. I am not afraid of anything. I am thinner" since freedom was for him identical to death.

According to the Kazantzakis Museum, his work has been translated and published in more than 50 countries and has been adapted for theater, film, radio and television Abroad, as claimed by Beaton (2011), "Zorbas", "O "Christ is crucified again" and "The Last Temptation" became better known as films by Michalis Kakogiannis, Jules Dassen and Martin Scorsese respectively rather than novels and in Greece the novel "Christ is crucified again" on the National Television ERT  by the series[7]  of Georgiadis.

  1. 2 Kazantzakis and Heraklion

In Crete there are about 50 museums of various subjects and objects, through which the history and cultural wealth of the island is highlighted. In Heraklion, the place of origin of the great Nikos Kazantzakis there are the following places that are dedicated to his memory and work:

  • Nikos Kazantzakis Museum One of them is the museum created in honor of Nikos Kazantzakis.

The historically renovated "Museum of Nikos Kazantzakis" is located in the central square of the historic village of Myrtia or Varvari, about 20 km from Heraklion. Its main goal is to preserve the author's memory and to promote his work and thought.

The year 2009 was a milestone year as the radical renovation of the building where the Permanent Exhibition is hosted took place, enriched with newer acquisitions of Kazantzakis, equipped with technological means, became friendly to the disabled, thus creating the image of a modern and functional space.

According to the museum's[8] website in the new Permanent Exhibition, the visitor will see manuscripts, letters, documents, Greek and foreign publications, photographs and personal items, theatrical material, rare audiovisual material, and a variety of works of art with illustrations by the author. Also included is a screening room with a 20-minute audiovisual presentation of the life and work of Nikos Kazantzakis, in 11 languages: Greek, English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Chinese, Korean, Dutch, Polish and Russian. guest can relax.

  • The Venetian Walls: Exhibition of Jesus Gate – Martinego

Near the tomb of N. Kazantzakis, in the renovated Venetian Gate of Jesus (New Door), there is an exhibition hall dedicated to the author of the Island, like an Odyssey that travels you through a modern gate, to his life and works. The photographic material and archive of the exhibition is a part of the collection of the Historical Museum of Crete and the Museum of Nikos Kazantzakis in Myrtia.[9]The Gate of Jesus is an entrance into the world of Nikos Kazantzakis and a journey to learn more about his multifaceted personality, works that take you from that time to today. Walking to the Venetian wall from the gate of Jesus (New Door) to Martinengo, you will find an ideal place for remembrance and rest next to the tomb of the great thinker.[10]

  • Heraklion Airport Nikos Kazantzakis

We could not miss the airport of Heraklion, which was named in honor of Nikos Kazantzakis and which completed its 82 years of operation[11]. Heraklion Airport is the second most important Greek airport, located in the area of ​​Nea Alikarnassos. and is 4 km from the center of Heraklion[12], and is the first place that a foreign that travels to Crete could first meet the writer


  1. Research
  2. 1 Purpose of the research

The purpose of the research is to highlight the points of contact of Kazantzakis's work with the city of Heraklion.

The main questions to be deciphered are whether Kazantzakis can already be described as an end in itself of a conscious tourist with cultural and especially literary interests, but also whether he could be included as a tourist product in the routes of ordinary tourists who will discover him through a random tour. In the end, suggestions will be made from the results that will emerge.

  1. 2 Research methodology

Research methodology is related to understanding the stages of completion of the scientific research process. Quantitative research was chosen for this article, using a questionnaire because in this case this method is appropriate due to the limitations that arose due to the specific case of the measures for the coronavirus Covid-19. The method was preferred as in a short time and with oral investigation it enabled the collection of data from a satisfactory sample through short answers, easy processing of data without interventions by researchers.

The survey was conducted from July 2020  to September 2020. The people who took part in it were (157), (69) of whom were foreign nationals. All interviewees were visitors to the town of Heraklion in the Martinego[13] bastion and not permanent residents.

  1. 3 Questionnaire results

According to Zafeiropoulos (2015), a questionnaire can include two types of questions, closed-ended and open-ended.

i. Closed-ended questions receive specific answers, are easy to analyze, and are widely used to enable quantitative analysis.

ii. The open-ended questions can be answered freely, developing their views. The processing of the answers is usually quality.

This questionnaire includes closed-ended questions and takes about 10 minutes to complete. The questions of the questionnaire selected are multiple choice and all variables are quantitative so that they can be categorized into classes or intervals, the range of which can be determined either by some logical criteria or by statistical methods.

The measurement scales of the questions  (Zafeiropoulos, 2015) generally belong to the following categories:

1) Single choice scales. These are questions that can only be answered by a series of suggested answers

2) Likert scale. In it the respondent is asked to state the degree of agreement or disagreement with a series of proposals on the subject of interest.

The questionnaire uses dichotomous questions (gender), single-multiple choice (educational level).


  1. Suggestions

The research yielded conclusions that help to create the following proposals:

  • As culture can not be the big absentee from a tour the relationship between literature and tourism should be interactive in order to be linked to regional development. The systematic integration of the monuments located in the city and concerning the work of Kazantzakis through the creation of specific literary routes in all the city tours should be a priority. Very important monuments that can not be missing from the tours are mentioned in his works such as the 25th of August, Agios Minas, Pediados Street, the area of ​​Agia Triada, Vigla, its walls, its tomb and finally the museum of Jesus Gate is just a few of the places to visit.
  • The connection of the city with the Kazantzakis museum in Myrtia but also with other places in Crete that are mentioned in its books in modern ways, ie with technological innovations eg interconnection through mobile phone applications, "tourist" book presentations through internet tours could be applied successfully and be an opportunity both for the tourism of the city but also for the interactive contact of the tourists with the literature .
  • However, the protagonists of his books have the same value, "Captain Michalis" for Heraklion or for Chania "Alexis Zorbas" can chart trips of great value for their fanatical readers . A solution could be also the connection of road-books with theatrical presentations during the guided excursions.
  • It would also be important to create a series of suggested routes that would relate to the author's travel works. Nikos Kazantzakis is one of the few and perhaps the most important writer of travel literature in our country and this legacy should be saved and made known to the general public through studies that will carve a new perspective in literary tourism.

A study with "mapping" Alexis Zorbas, Captain Michalis on the island of all points would be a proposal that could later include other areas outside Crete such as those mentioned in his travel projects.

  • The points that make Kazantzakis unique should be emphasized with standard procedures that will be developed in order to further highlight him, such as regular conferences on a different topic or the presentation of his plays and films in foreign languages that will always keep the author in cultural and tourist news.
  • An interactive / experiential presentation of the spaces could also be created with the help of technology. Virtual reality, which for many and especially for young people is a frequent occupation, could potentially help with holograms in this direction, approaching a wider tourist base.
  • The connection of the well-known five-day excursion that is usual in the 3rd Lyceum with the city of Heraklion with promotional actions of the Municipality would also give an important lead. From what the research shows, Nikos Kazantzakis is very dear to the Greeks and known even at a young age. The award of some schools that would win national competitions on the subject of Kazantzakis and his work in addition to tourism would also have educational value as it would aim at education.
  • The connection of literary tourism with other forms such as nature-loving with points contained in the works of Kazantzakis such as the wider area of Myrtia would favor regional development by throwing the burden on quality tourism.



The pandemic of Covid - 19 caused but continues to cause a huge economic recession that of course has an impact on tourism. 7.4 million tourists traveled to Greece, which compared to 2019 is in clear decline as arrivals in our country had recorded 31.3 million incoming travelers with revenues amounting to about 4 billion compared to about 20 in 2019. It could considered as an optimistic scenario to reach the turnover of 40% of 2019 always with the hope that there will be no bad surprises. It is therefore necessary to establish rules that will be able to give the citizen the stability he needs at the level of security to start traveling again.

Literary tourism can target a wider audience by differentiating the offer by combining on the one hand, literary tours in the steps of Kazantzakis that most have already been taught in school or seen in the cinema but also with the classic vacation packages that are ready to meet the needs of the tourist looking for the diptych "sun - sea"

As proved by the research that preceded literature, through Nikos Kazantzakis, it can be combined with the cultural and natural characteristics of the city and the wider region of Heraklion and function as a starting point for tourism, significantly enhancing regional development.

Further research on management and infrastructure deficiencies could highlight the value of literature as a key factor in enabling Heraklion to remain a competitive cultural destination.





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Kazantzaki Essay with informations from the



Serpent and Lily (under the pseudonym Karma Nirvami), ch., Typ. F. Alexiou, Heraklion, 1906.

«Broken Souls» (under the pseudonym Petros Psiloritis), Noumas, Athens, 1909-1910.

Life and Times of Alexis Zorbas Pr. Dimitrakou, Athens, 1946.

Captain Michalis, Mavridis, Athens, 1953.

Christ Recrucified, Difros, Athens, 1954

Toda-Raba, translated by Giannis Maglis, Difros, Athens, 1956

St Francis of Assisi, Difros, Athens, 1956.

The Rock Garden, translation by Pantelis Prevelakis, Estia, Athens, 1960

Report to Greco, Pr. Konstantinidis, Athens, 1961.

The Fratricides, Athens, 1963



Friedrich Nietzsche on the Philosophy of Right and the State, Heraklion, St. M. Alexiou, 1909

H.Bergson, Pr. Maisner and Kargadouri, 1912

Salvatores Dei, Asceticism, Athens, 1927

Symposium, Athens, Eleni Kazantzaki, 1971

A History of Russian Literature, A’, Athens: Eleftheroudakis 1930

A History of Russian Literature, B’, Athens: Eleni Kazantzakis 1965




The master builder, Athens, published by Panathinaion, 1910.

Sodom and Gomorrah, Athens, 1949. (reprint from Nea Estia)

Christos, Athens, Stochastis, 1928.

Odisseas, Athens, Stochastis, 1928.

Nikiforos Fokas, Athens, Pyrsos, 1939.

Nikiforos Fokas, Athens, Stoxasris, 1927

Melissa, Athens , 1939, (offprint by Nea Estia)

Julian the Apostate, Athens, Pinguinos, 1945

Kapodistrias, N. Alikiotis, 1946

Day is Breaking, Athens, Kazantzakis Publications, 2013 [This is the publication of a theatrical drama by N. Kazantzakis (1906) by his wife Eleni Kazantzakis].




What I saw in Russia A. Athens, Stochastis, 1928.

What I saw in Russia B - DG. Athens, Stochastis, 1928.

Traveling A: Spain. Athens, Torch, 1956.

Traveling B: Japan - China. Athens, Torch, 1938.

Traveling C: England. Athens, Torch, 1941.

Traveling: Spain, Italy, Egypt, Sinai. Alexandria, published by Serapion, 1927.

Traveling: Italy, Egypt, Sinai, Jerusalem, Cyprus. Athens, O Morias, 1961.



Odyssey, Athens, Torch, 1938.

Tertsines. Athens, 1960.



Letters to Galatia, Athens, Difros, 1958.

Four hundred letters by Kazantzakis to Prevelakis, Athens, Eleni Kazantzaki, 1984.

Unpublished letters of Kazantzaki. From his youth to his mature years (1902-1956), Athens, published by the Nikos Kazantzakis Museum, 1979.

The chronicle of a creation. Unpublished correspondence Kazantzaki - Martinou, George Anemogiannis (ed.), Barbarians of Crete, published by Nikos Kazantzakis Museum, 1986.



Alexander the Great. Athens, Eleni Kazantzaki, 1979.

the palaces of Knossos, Athens, Eleni Kazantzaki, 1981.



William James, The Theory of Emotion, Athens, Fexis, 1911.

Frederick Nietzsche, The Birth of Tragedy, Athens, Fexis, 1912.

Frederick Nietzsche, Tade efi Zarathustra, Athens, Fexis, 1913.

T.P. Eckermann, Conversations Eckermann with Goethe, Athens, Fexis, 1913.

C.A. Laisant, Education on the Basis of Science, Athens, Fexis, 1913.

M. Mayterling, The Treasure of the Humble, Athens, Fexis, 1913.

Ch. Darwin, On the Genesis of Species, Athens, Fexis, 1915.

Louis Bόchner, Dynamis and Matter, Athens, Fexis, 1915.

H. Bergson, The Laughter, Athens, Fexis, 1915.

The Ruler of Niccolo Machiavelli. Athens, Galaxias, 1961.

Johanes Joergensen, Saint Francis of Assisi, Athens, 1951.

Platon, Alkiviadis II, Athens, Fexis, 1912.

Plato, Ion, Minos, Dimodokos, Sisyphus, Kleitofon, Athens, Fexis, e.g.

Homer, Iliad, Athens, 1955 (translation by N. Kazantzaki - I.T. Kakridi).

Homer, Odyssey, Athens, 1965 (translation by N. Kazantzaki - I.T. Kakridi).

Dante, The Divine Comedy, Athens, Circle, 1934.



Jules Verne, The Pirates of the Aegean, Athens, Dimitrakos, 1931.

Jules Verne, The Adventures of a Chinese in China, Athens, Dimitrakos, 1931.

Jules Verne, The Land of Diamonds, Athens, Dimitrakos, 1931.

Jules Verne, Around the World in 80 Days, Athens, Dimitrakos, 1931.

Jules Verne, The Floating State, Athens, Dimitrakos, 1942.

Jules Verne, From the Caucasus to Beijing, Athens, Dimitrakos, 1942.

Jules Verne, Michael Strogoff, Athens, Dimitrakos, 1942.

Jules Verne, Roviros the Conqueror. Athens, Dimitrakos, 1943.

Boulevard - Lytton, The last days of Pompeii, Athens, Eleftheroudakis, 1933.

Maine Reed, The New Robinsons, Athens, Nikas and Co., e.g.

Beecher Stowe, The hut of Barba Thomas, Athens, Eleftheroudakis, e.g.

Bonsels, Maya the Bee, Athens, Eleftheroudakis, 1931.

Dickens, Oliver Twist, Athens, Eleftheroudakis, [1933].

Dode, To mikrouliko, Athens, Eleftheroudakis, e.g.

Swift, The Travels of Gulliver, Athens, Eleftheroudakis, e.g.

Gopal - Moukeri, The elephant Kari, Athens, Eleftheroudakis, [1931].



Theater. Tragedies with Byzantine themes. Athens, Difros, 1956.

Theater • Tragedies with various themes. Athens, Difros, 1956.

Unpublished letters. Nikos Kazantzakis writes…, Editing - Introduction - Comments Thanassis Papathanassopoulos, Barbarians of Heraklion, published by the Nikos Kazantzakis Museum Foundation, e.g.




[1] According to the website, the agency, Boscolo, has entered into an agreement with the Feltrinelli publishing house in order to offer "a selection of travel inspired by some of the greatest literary successes of all time". As stated in the presentation of the project, "the routes lead the audience to discover the places where the stories begin"

[2] Photo nr 1 of the Annex

[3] The data are presented at the  photo nr 2 of the Annex

[4] INSETE acronym of the words: Institute of Greek Tourism Business Associations.

[5] this epic poem of 33,333 verses was published in 1938 in 3,000 copies, signed and numbered.

[6] first as director general of the Ministry of Health, and later as Minister Without Portfolio of the Sofoulis government (1945-46)

[7] was broadcast by EIRT-ERT in the period 1975-1976 in 50 episodes of which 18 are currently preserved.

[13] Burial point of Nikos Kazantzakis and the most connected point in the city with his name.