Eka Ardianto[1]

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the dimensions of community-based tourism, a case of surf community in Bali. Most members are resident of Bali, the rest came from various regions in Indonesia. Through factor analysis, there are four dimensions: inspirational; entrepreneurial; cultural; and social.

Key Words: Community-based tourism; stakeholder theory

BACKGROUND

Bali is one of the famous tourist destination. It is located in Indonesia which consists of several islands that also have various attractive tourist destination. Various research studies related to the Bali tourism (Minca 2000; Rosenbaum and Wong, 2007; and Iverson 2010). Various tourism available in Bali, such as art and nature tourism. Besides, Bali has special place and very different from other surfing locations. In Bali you can surf every day because there are waves every day not like in other places. If Nusa Dua desn’t have waves, Uluwatu will have some. In August, there was a pro surfing contest at Uluwatu and Padang-Padang. The waves were so good at Padang Padang that invite the photographers and videographers from all over the world to get the best shots of the pro surfers (www.magicwave.org). Surfing is the most popular water sport in Bali. Surfing championships are held every year. These championships have a positive impact for tourism industries, because it makes Bali becomes the international destination for surfing (www.baliheaven.com).

THE PHENOMENA

In Bali there are many several surf communities. They are learning from other community to get inspiration about surfing techniques. Besides, the Balinese culture concerns for the natural environment. Balinese people belief that natural environment is spiritually preserved. Those phenomena lead to Coca-Cola to manage its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) relates to surfing and environment. Coca-Cola Amatil Indonesia (CCAI) conducts Indonesian Surfing Championship (ISC) Tour. Member of surfing communities, regional government, and surfing industry partners are present. In order to implement its CSR, CCAI programs work on four key areas: environment; marketplace; workplace, and community. ISC tour can help surfers to develop and proof themselves to national and international spectators. Together with surf community, CCAI conduct program to make beaches in Bali better (www.baliheaven.com).

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Community-Based Tourism (CBT) enables tourists to discover local habitats and wildlife, celebrates and respects traditional cultures, rituals, and wisdom. The community will be aware of the commercial and social value placed on their natural and cultural heritage through tourism, and this will foster community based conservation of these resources (www.communitybasedtourism.info). There are many study related on CBT. Okazaki (2008) developed the model of CBT integrating the concepts the ladder of participation, power redistribution, collaboration processes, and social capital. The study demonstrated that the model can be used to assess the actual participation level in a study site. Futhermore, Byrd (2007) argued that there is not a definable single generic interest for the host community. The interests will be individual to each community and each subgroup of the community. Changes to the community can either assist in keeping an individual in a community or increase their chance to leave the community. Current tourism and tourism development in the community will also influence their support for future endeavors and their interactions with visitors. The support and interactions will in turn influence the overall success of the tourism development. Moreover, Baglieri and Consoli (2009) elaborated the meaning of community in tourism. They argued that customers may interact with companies and other customers and may achieve more information that allows them to reduce their information asymmetry and become more empowered than they were in a pre-IT era. Numerous recent researches report that online reviews and comments do influence individuals’ purchase decisions, affecting the evolution of demand within communities. In this respect, virtual communities play a pivotal role in boosting tourist product innovation by leveraging learning from customer relationships. Customers may become a source of innovation since they gain an economic benefit from innovation which boosts their creativity, and show high expertise which may be transferred to firms and among communities. Virtual communities allow people who interact to satisfy their own needs and to share purpose such as an interest, need, information exchange, or service that provides a reason for the community. Firms may leverage these communities by providing a suitable context where customers may share social conventions, language, and protocols. Futhermore, Vanagas and Jagminas (2011) examined the potential of CBT in Vilnius district municipality, as well as to propose measures to make this activity feasible. The study demonstrates that communities considered their participation in tourism development reported a number of difficulties they have confronted with. The problems were mentioned most often: disagreement with the local government; lack of communal land; lack of finance; apathy and lack of initiative amongst local residents; lack of sociality and solidarity. Moreover, Lapeyre (2010) assesses the potential contribution of Community-Based Tourism Enterprises (CBTEs) to poverty alleviation and empowerment. It shows that tourism income captured locally improves rural households’ livelihoods and generates linkages in the local economy. On the job learning, training sessions and extensive support by non-governmental organisations and donors are further shown to empower rural actors and unlock socioeconomic opportunities for the future. In this context, CBTEs can be characterised as pro-poor initiatives. However, this study provides counter evidence that the sustainability of such community tourism ventures is to be questioned. First, mainstreaming these projects within the competitive tourism commodity chain proves highly challenging and costly; second, communities’ institutional and managerial capacity is weak and thus CBTEs’ viability is limited; finally, inadequate support by donors and non-governmental organisations fails to tackle challenges faced by community tourism ventures. Futhermore, Manyara and Jones (2007) evaluate the potential of Community-Based Enterprise (CBE) as avenues of poverty alleviation in Kenya and the challenges facing them. The key factors that could influence local community attitudes towards CBE fall into two categories: motivational factors and community factors. A sense of ownership was seen as critical so that local communities were adequately empowered and involved. CBE initiatives had to be seen to be adding value to existing livelihoods. Issues of elitism and poor leadership also have to be addressed. Futhermore, Fiorello and Bo (2012) studied Community-based ecotourism. It aims at environmental conservation but it is also a way to empower communities, by allowing them a degree of control over tourism projects and their impacts. Fiorello and Bo explored the varying degrees of empowerment of host communities provided by community-based ecotourism through a metastudy analysis of six case studies of tourism projects. Not all contemporary tourism projects take local populations into consideration thus the six case studies are nonrandom selections for the purpose of representing the concept embodied in the thesis and showing its appropriateness with the new tourists' expectations.Futhermore, Salazar (2012), studied community-based tourism using long-term anthropological fieldwork in Tanzania. The study critically analyzes how well generally accepted community-based tourism discourses resonate with the reality on the ground. It focuses on how local guides handle their role as ambassadors of communal cultural heritage and how community members react to their narratives and practices. It pays special attention to the time-limited, project-based development method, the need for an effective exit strategy, for quality control, tour guide training and long-term tour guide retention. Findings reveal multiple complex issues of power and resistance that illustrate many community-based tourism conflicts. The encounter with the “Other” is shown to be central and that the role of professional intermediaries in facilitating this experience of cultural contact is crucial. Tour guides are often the only “locals” with whom tourists spend considerable time: they have considerable agency in the image-building process of the peoples and places visited, (re)shaping tourist destination images and indirectly influencing the self-image of those visited too.

OBJECTIVE

As elaborated in the beginning of this paper, there are phenomena of surf community in Bali. Surf community are learning from other community to get inspiration about surfing techniques and they also conduct partnerships with companies to protect the environment and educate people to support making beaches in Bali better. By synthesizing the phenomena and the theoretical framework, the gap still remain. For that reason, the objective of this study is to measure dimensionality of CBT.

METHOD

Prior to this study, author conducted observation of surfer community activities. Based on those observations and theoretical framework, author developed a questionnaire consisting of four variables, each of which developed minimum into three items with a five-point Likert scale. The number of respondents in this study were as many as 100. In accordance with the eligibility criteria between the number of variables and respondents, the study meets the requirements (Hair, William, Barry, Rolph, and Ronald 2006). Then author conducts items purification through a number of experts and community members. After some revisions, questionnaire distributed throughout the community members.

FINDINGS

Analyzing data through factor analysis by using criteria of eigenvalues greater than 1.0, principal component analysis, and varimax rotation. The results are shown in table 1.

Table 1

Factor analysis’s result of the dimensionality of Community-Based Tourism

Factor

% Variance

explained

Cronbach’s

Alpha

Item

Factor

loading

Inspirational

36.040%

.792

Ins 2

.856

Ins 1

.833

Ins 3

.724

Entrepreneurial

17.846%

.939

Ent 3

.950

Ent 2

.919

Cultural

11.258%

.705

Cul 1

.833

Cul 2

.778

Cul 3

.697

Social

10.336%

.729

Soc 2

.853

Soc 1

.850

The value of the KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) statistic is .660 indicates that is appropriate for factor analysis (Malhotra, 2010), total variance explained for the four dimensions is equal to 75.480% that indicates the level of variance is satisfactory (Malhotra 2010). Cronbach's alpha ranged from .705-.939 that indicates the internal reliability is supported (Nunnaly 1979), and factor loading in each dimension ranged from .697-.950 indicates that construct validity for sample of 100 is supported (Hair, William, Barry, Rolph, and Ronald 2006; Huck and William 1996).

DISCUSSIONS

Community-based tourism relates to stakeholder management (Byrd 2007). In this study, surf community relates with other surf community, tourists (both customers who wants to learn surfing and public), and company. Based on findings in table 1 and the phenomena as explained in the beginning of this paper, author contructs matrix as depicted in figure 1.The matrix consists of two dimensions: first, the context of community-based tourism. It consists of internal and external stakeholder. Internal stakeholder includes both within community and between communities, besides, external stakeholder includes tourists and company. Second, the content of community-based tourism. It consists of integration and relation. Integration means to what extent community becomes more exist. It explaines doing the business and implementing the belief. Futhermore, relation means to what extent community relates to other community and tourists. It explaines learning from others community and interacting with tourists.

Figure 1

Matrix of Dimensions of Community-Based Tourism

LIMITATIONS AND DIRECTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

This study has limitations that only focuses on surf community, specifically in Bali. There can be differences in the findings when tourists and company also are considered.

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Vanagas, Nerijus and Jagminas, Jonas (2011),The potential of community-based tourism development in vilnius district municipality, Management theory and studies for rural business and infrastructure development, Nr. 4 (28),157-163

www.baliheaven.com

www.communitybasedtourism.info

www.magicwave.org



[1] Prasetiya Mulya Business School, Indonesia